Huntington’s disease and Parkinson’s disease have similarities and differences in their origins, symptoms, treatment, and prognosis. Parkinson’s disease results from a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Conversely, Huntington’s disease is inherited from a parent to a child and results from genetic changes in the parent. The two diseases have common motor symptoms, such as involuntary movements and rigidity. However, Huntington’s disease can be linked to movement problems; particularly, chorea, which involves writhing movements and unusual jerking. For Parkinson’s disease, involuntary movements cause tremors. There is no cure for both diseases; however, existing treatment options aim to relieve symptoms. The treatment of chorea among people with Huntington’s disease involves using riluzole, amantadine, or tetrabenazine. No single standard treatment exists for Parkinson’s disease that can reverse its effects. Instead, doctors rely on individual symptoms to base their treatment recommendations. Levodopa is commonly used to ease the disease’s symptoms. On the prognosis of the two diseases, Parkinson’s disease is associated with severe disability or death within some years for patients who do not seek treatment, while Huntington’s disease is linked to severe motor symptoms, which may prevent mobility.
Phantom limb refers to a vivid perception that a missing body part is still present and performs normal functions. Phantom limb is common among amputee patients who experience sensations about the existence of removed or amputated limbs.
Cognitive reserve refers to how efficiently and flexibly a person utilizes available brain resources; mainly, during brain damage. An example is the ability of a person not to show symptoms of dementia or Parkinson’s disease during his lifetime. Yet, an autopsy revealed that he had brain changes consistent with the disease’s advanced symptoms. Also, a person with a cognitive reserve can continue to live a normal life despite being diagnosed with diseases associated with degenerative brain changes.