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Can People with Autism Lead a Functional Life? Essay Example
Posted by: Write My Essay on: January 15, 2021

Abstract

Today, a lot of children suffer from autism. As a result, many parents after their child is diagnosed with autism wonder what will become of their children. It is no wonder that the initial question in the minds of the parents after realizing that their child has autism is whether the child will be able to have a “normal” life. As of today, one in every 110 children across the globe is estimated to suffer from autism. Due to its now prevalent presence in the world, it has become very important for scholars and parents, and researchers to understand whether this whole lot of children can have a functional life. The first known and documented case of autism was done1943 and was recorded in a medical journal that the article reported as “unlike anything reported so far.” In that case, Donald T was the case number 1 child given the autism diagnosis. Donald is now 77 years old and when John Donovan, a reporter from The Atlantic went to visit him found in the forest playing golf. The term “functional” has been coined to replace the word “normal” because there are many variations in each case of autism and therefore, it is almost impossible to determine how “normal” the life of a person is going to be. However, numerous studies and research are now revealing that no matter how “high functioning” and “low functioning” a person’s autism is there is increasing evidence that such children have hope for a functional life with supports and therapies. This paper analyses autism by exploring whether a person with autism can lead a functional life as a teenager and as an adult.

Introduction

One of the initial questions asked by a parent after realizing that their child has autism is whether the child will be able to have a “normal” life. As of today, one in every 110 children across the globe is estimated to suffer from autism. Due to its now prevalent presence in the world, it has become very important for scholars and parents to understand whether this whole lot of children can have a functional life. This first case of autism was reported in 1943 in a medical journal that the article reported as “unlike anything reported so far.” In that case, Donald T was the case number 1 child given the autism diagnosis. Donald is now 77 years old and when John Donovan, a reporter from The Atlantic went to visit him found in the forest playing gold. The term “functional” has been coined to replace the word “normal” because there are many variations in each case of autism and therefore, it is almost impossible to determine how “normal” the life of a person is going to be. However, numerous studies and research are now revealing that no matter how “high functioning” and “low functioning” a person’s autism is there is increasing evidence that such children have hope for a functional life with supports and therapies. This paper analyses autism by exploring whether a person with autism can lead a functional life as a teenager and as an adult.

Research Problem

With so many people now diagnosed as being autistic, the need is to now understand whether these people are capable of leading functional lives.

Hypothesis

With modern therapies and support people with autism are now able to live functional lives.

Literature Review

Gowen and Hamilton (2013) outline that more than previously thought possible, people suffering from autism are able to live as independently as possible as a result of modern therapies and supports (Gowen & Hamilton, 2013). The article further outlines that children can now go to the same classrooms with the other children and this raises the confidence and the coping capabilities of the autistic children. With the support now coming from all sides, under some special circumstances, a child can get intervention of specialists in order to reduce the degree any disruptive behavior that they may have through therapy.

Through the interventions through therapy, children can now more than ever before learn the essential academic skills such as math, writing, and reading and be able to finish high school (Groden, Woodard & Kantor, 2012). It has been documented that some are now even going all the way and attain college degrees. There are programs now to help autistic adults comfortably live independent lives, be involved in community building, and do meaningful work (Belkin, 2010). As a result, even the ones with cognitive challenges are able to live independently and be able to do house chores for themselves, such as working, dressing, cooking and shopping among others.

In the book Autism Spectrum Disorder in Mid and Later Life, Wright explains that the most important factor in helping a child reach their fullest potential is early intervention (Wright, 2012). When a child manages to get help early on in life, they are capable of getting the necessary intervention from family members and community support groups so that they can reach their fullest potential. Early intervention is necessary considering that now it is estimated that there are hundreds of thousands of adults with autism that are living independently and are positively contributing to their community. She goes on to argue that a lot of people now in the workplace and in relationships have autism, but are now able to manage it and earn a living for themselves.

In a 2013 article, Claire Bates outlines that with early intervention, children born with “high functioning” autism can grow out of autism (Bates, 2013). The study outlined that this group of recovering children consist of children that tended to have mild forms of autistic symptoms and social difficulties. Later in life, with early intervention and support programs, these children showed no signs of difficulties in social interaction, face recognition, language, or communication despite having been diagnosed with autism early in life. However, the researchers cautioned that the results relate only to a small number of people who were born with high functioning autism. For this group of autistic children, intensive therapy is able to make them grow out of autism, completely doing away with their difficulties in communication and interaction with other people, thereby making them lead fully functional lives.

However, Jennifer Van Pelt is a little optimistic about the functionality of life that adults suffering from autism are able to attain given that many therapies and support programs are oriented towards children with autism (Pelt, 2008). In her article “Autism into Adulthood-Making the Transition”, Pelt outlines that therapies and support structures are well organized for autistic children. However, she observes that there has been little enthusiasm to understand what happens when these children grow up. With very few support programs and therapies for adults, autistic adults face challenges ranging from social relationships, employment, and daily living. Pelt explains that it is not that the therapies are not there or that support programs do not exist, they have simply not been documented, researched, or advertised as those attending to young adults. Her article outlines that local and state resources for teenagers and adults with autism range from social skills development, vocational training, long-term residential care, and supervised daycare. Due to these challenges, her article urges social work to specifically target this group in order to improve their physical stamina, personal relationships, and regular employment expectations.

 

References

Bates, C. (2013, January 15). Children can GROW OUT of autism: Controversial research suggests not all youngsters have the same fate. Daily Mail.

Belkin, L. (2010, September 15). When Autistic Children Become Adults. The New York Times.

Gowen, E., & Hamilton, A. (2013). Motor abilities in autism: a review using a computational context. Journal Of Autism And Developmental Disorders, (2), 323. doi:10.1007/sl0803-012-1574-0

Groden, J., Woodard, C., & Kantor, A. (2012). How Everyone on the Autism Spectrum, Young and Old, Can… : Become Resilient, Be More Optimistic, Enjoy Humor, Be Kind, and Increase Self-Efficacy – A Positive Psychology Approach. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Pelt, J. V. (2008). Autism Into Adulthood — Making the Transition. Social Work Today, 8(5), 12.

Wright, S. D. (2016). Autism Spectrum Disorder in Mid and Later Life. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

 

Depression and its Links to Physical Pain & Illness Essay Example
Posted by: Write My Essay on: January 14, 2021

Depression is a mental health condition that affects millions of Americans each year. In 2015, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIH) estimated that 16.1 million adults (ages 18 and up) experiencing at least one major depressive episode in that year alone (NIH, 2017). One of the commonalities for those suffering from depression is reports of physical illnesses or pain. While it is true that some cases of depression stem from an individual having a physical illness, and developing depression due to their illness, there are vast numbers of cases that include physical illness that didn’t manifest until after a depressive episode (Goodwin, 2006). It is through these reports that a strong link between physical and mental health can be drawn. While depression may not be the sole reason that someone develops physical illnesses, research shows that there is a direct connection between biology and a person’s mental health.

The Common Cold Of Psychiatry

Depression is often described as being “‘the common cold’ of psychiatry”, affecting individuals in both mild and severe forms (Goodwin, 2006). The links between the physical body and depressive episodes are often lost, but it needs to be understood that “all severe depression is in some sense biological” (Goodwin, 2006). When patients present to their doctors, the symptoms of “major depression… minor depression dysthymia, and depressive symptoms merge with other manifestations of human distress”, most notably physical illness or ailments (Goodwin, 2006).

Another point that must be addressed is the differences between men and women who are diagnosed with depression. According to NIH (2017), women are twice as likely to suffer a depressive episode as men. It is difficult, however, to conclusively say that women suffer from depression more than men, since men are less likely to report symptoms. Women are noted as being more comfortable discussing emotional issues with their primary physicians over men, which could explain why fewer men are reported to have depressive episodes (WHO, 2017).

Findings by Harvard Health Findings (2009) found interesting results when looking at the link between pain and depression: “According to some estimates, more than 50% of depressed patients who visit general practitioners complain only of physical symptoms, and in most cases the symptoms include pain. Some studies suggest that if physicians tested all pain patients for depression, they might discover 60% of currently undetected depression” (Harvard Health Findings, 2009). Since the full scope of depression in the global population is uncertain, it cannot be said with certainty that women are more likely to suffer depressive episodes than men.

Additionally, when it comes to physical symptoms, women are more likely to “generally report more bodily distress and more numerous, more intense, and more frequent somatic symptoms than men” (Barsky, Peekna, and Borus, 2001). At the same time, the study by Barsky et al (2001) notes that men and women have different experiences when it comes to “somatic symptoms, bodily distress, and physical health”. The interpretations of current research, however, “is difficult because studies vary in the methods used to elicit and measure symptoms” (Barsky et al, 2001). It is because of this that physical illness resulting from depression cannot be measured as being higher in men than it is in women. While more women are found to have depressive episodes, and, for example, be at higher risk for cardiovascular disease, direct ties between specific illnesses and depression cannot be verified (WHO, 2017). There are many risk factors for illnesses, and while stress (or depression) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, there is no way to conclusively know what sole specific factor brought on the development of the disease (WHO, 2017).

Identifying Risk Factors

Because of the issues with identifying risk factors, it cannot be said with certainty that depression leads to the development of specific illnesses or physical ailments. However, there is conclusive evidence that shows those with depression have higher rates of physical symptoms. For those suffering from depression, physical symptoms often manifest in the form of “chronic joint pain, limb pain, back pain, gastrointestinal problems, tiredness, sleep disturbances, psychomotor activity changes, and appetite changes” (Trivedi, 2004). While most studies tend to try and identify which came first, the physical manifestations or the depression, Trivedi (2004) points out that “physical pain and depression have a deeper biological connection than simple cause and effect”. In patients suffering from a depressive episode, “many physicians consider patients to be in remission when their acute emotional symptoms have abated, but residual symptoms—including physical symptoms—are very common and increase the likelihood of relapse” (Trivedi, 2004).

For a patient to achieve a full remission, both the emotional symptoms and the residual symptoms need to be measured. “There are a number of short yet accurate measurement tools (rating scales) available that effectively measure the remission of physical symptoms as well as emotional symptoms” (Trivedi, 2004). Given the links between depression and physical symptoms, as well as the increased likelihood of relapse due to not handling the residual symptoms as part of the depressive episode, it is in the patient’s best interest to perform simple tests to ensure they succeed at making a full remission, rather than to risk a relapse by not making the connection between the mental and the physical links.

The Biological Link Between Depression And Physical Pain

There is something to be said about the biological link between depression and physical pain, in the way that they are both treated. “Pain, especially chronic pain, is an emotional condition as well as a physical sensation. It is a complex experience that affects thought, mood, and behavior and can lead to isolation, immobility and drug dependence” (Harvard Health Publications, 2009). When looked at from that perspective, it is easy to see that depression is similar to physical pain. “Pain is depressing, and depression causes and intensifies the pain. People with chronic pain have three times the average risk of developing psychiatric symptoms—usually mood or anxiety disorders—and depressed patients have three times the average risk of developing chronic pain” (Harvard Health Publications, 2009).

Anti-depressants and pain medication also act in the same way, furthering the idea of a biological link. Both “act in brain pathways that regulate mood and the perception of pain” (Harvard Health Publications, 2009). If there wasn’t a biological link between the two, the brain pathways targeted for treatment would likely not be the same in both pain and depression. When a person has both depression and pain, the recovery from both is a lot more difficult. “Pain slows recovery from depression, and depression makes the pain more difficult to treat; for example, it may cause patients to drop out of rehabilitation programs. Worse, both pain and depression tend to feed on themselves” (Harvard Business Publications, 2009).

This is something that must be considered for patients with both pain and depression. Given the estimation that such a high percentage of depression patients go undiagnosed, it would be useful for health care providers to test for physical and mental health problems at the same time. This would increase a person’s chance at a full remission after treatment, as well as let the health care provider know if there are more issues that have to be addressed than just the physical or mental state. Pain and depression both “change brain function and behavior. Depression leads to isolation and isolation leads to further depression; pain causes fear of movement, and immobility causes the conditions of further pain” (Harvard Business Publications, 2009). Depression and pain act the same way, and “when depression is treated, pain often fades away, and when the pain goes away, so does much of the suffering that causes depression” (Harvard Health Publications, 2009). When considering this, along with the research by Trivedi (2004), it is clear that just because a patient is no longer experiencing pain or depression after the other has been treated, doesn’t mean that it is gone completely.

Focus On The Patient’s Mental Health

For psychologists, the focus will still always be on the patient’s mental health. At the same time, testing for physical pain or illness would be a smart move. The overall health and well being of the patient is the goal, not just the solving of a single problem. With mental health and physical pain or illness being so tied together, it would be wrong to only treat one problem when many more could be being overlooked, which would cause a relapse back into depression in the future. Primary care physicians should also be aware of the links, taking the time to look for depression rather than just treat physical pain or illness. By working together, psychologists and primary care providers can treat the whole patient, not just the part that seems to be broken from their diagnostic perspective.

While there is still a lot of research to be done, a direct biological link between pain and depression is being discovered. As with any illness or disease, it is impossible to conclusively say which factors caused specific illnesses. It is also impossible to say which comes first, the depression or the pain. Instead of trying to find what to blame for either mental or physical illness, health care providers need to look at the links between mental and physical health as being impossible to separate. One will always affect the other, even in minor ways. To ignore this is to leave problems undiagnosed, which only results in the problem coming back again for the patient in the future. The links between the mind and the body are fascinating, and we still haven’t begun to understand how deep the connection goes. We have to keep asking questions and comparing bodies of research so that we can begin to form the bigger picture in its entirety.

References

Barsky, A.J., Peekna, H.M., Borus, J.F. (2001). Somatic symptom reporting in men and women. Journal of General Internal Medicine, April 2001; 16(4): 266-275.

Goodwin, G.M. (2006). Depression and associated physical diseases and symptoms. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. June 2006; 8(2):259-265.

Harvard Health Publications (2009). Depression and pain. Harvard Medical School, June, 2009. Retrieved March 15, 2017 from http://www.health.harvard.edu/mind-and-mood/depression_and_pain

NIH (2017a). Major depression among adults. National Institute of Mental Health, 2017. Retrieved March 15, 2017 from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/prevalence/major-depression-among-adults.shtml

NIH (2017b). Who is at risk for heart disease? National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, 2017. Retrieved March 15, 2017 from https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hdw/atrisk

Trivedi, M.H. (2004). The link between depression and physical symptoms. Primary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2004; 6(suppl 1): 12-16.

WHO (2017). Gender and women’s health. World Health Organization, 2017. Retrieved March 15, 2017 from http://www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/genderwomen/en/

 

 

 

 

What the Future Holds Essay Example
Posted by: Write My Essay on: January 13, 2021

The beer boom is expected to expand throughout 2017 and beyond. If your taste in beer has been progressively improving from the typical larger to the trendiest craft beers, you are probably in for a treat as brewers have a lot of goodies in store for 2017. The number of craft beer breweries has increased over the years, thanks to the high demand. The boom began after the government put in place legislation to allow breweries to produce any amount of beer possible within their capacity. The future of craft brewing looks bright from state to state, and it is likely to give the federal government revenues, which will improve the economy exponentially. The growing economy has unleashed a wave of new entrepreneurial heads who are looking for fun and exciting ways to spend their money. The brewing industry will benefit from this new trend as its potential is great and promising. The breweries are cropping up from side to side, thanks to millennials’ obsession with craft beer.

The Craft Beer Boom

The craft beer boom has no signs to slow down, according to the Beer Institute study. The beer Institute study found out that the overall beer industry contributed a lot of money to the Canadian economy. The brewers and distributors, together with retailers and importers, have an important role to play in ensuring that the beer industry remains at the top. Statistics show that consumer preferences are in tandem with the impact of beer brewing on the national economy. The market is still ready for more breweries, and as it is, this will make a booming 2017 in terms of breweries and craft beer. Additionally, the production volumes are expected to go up. However, there was a lower growth rate last year. Production levels reduced from 16% to 8 % for the same period. This drop was mostly attributed to new investors buying out craft breweries with no intention to grow the craft brewing arm of the breweries. Non-craft companies, even when producing craft beer, are not considered as a craft. The opening of new breweries, on the other hand, will ensure that this does not happen by the end of this year. The volume lost will be recovered, and the breweries will improve this production volume. The growth trajectory of the craft industry as a whole will be positive if all things considered going as planned.

The Brewers’ Association of Canada

The Brewers’ Association of Canada indicates that Canadian brewers are ready for what has to be done to ensure domestic brewing can competitively compete with other brewers across the globe. This was cemented in the free trade negotiations between American and Canadian breweries to ensure free trade. It was a move to ensure that Canada would be able to import and export their produce without much hassle. The goal is to revitalize the economy step by step through brewing. It is not like people are drinking more – they are just choosing to drink better and drink locally brewed beer. Consumers see this as a chance to bolster the community and in some way contribute to the economy.

The future of drinking lies in the constituents of a drink and the impact it has on the social and economic ways of living. It is because consumers are more aware of what they want – tastes and preferences play a critical role in the choice of drink. Craft beer has introduced a new trend in beer drinking as consumers continue to identify with drinks that suit their tastes and preferences. As such, craft beer has attracted new markets in young women and non-jock men who previously did not appeal to the beer market. The demographic preferences will continue to influence future beer trends. The highest consumers of craft beer range between 21 and 35 years of age. The millenniums demand of craft beer is mainly influenced by variety, quality, and demand for local products, unlike previous generations. Increasing demand for local products and the need to explore different tastes continues to encourage local manufacturers to enter into the industry. Craft beer has also emerged as an alternative to wine, consequently attracting older consumers. As the wine industry continues to be stagnant, many boomers are discarding wine and shifting to craft beers which provide them with the unique flavors tastes that they crave for.

Similarly, pricing continues to play a fundamental role in influencing the type of craft beer that millenniums purchase. Millenniums are the largest consumers of craft beer and are limited to affordable drinks when making purchases. Affordable craft beers continue to attract this particular demographic who are serial beer enthusiasts.

The Canadian Beer Market

The Canadian beer market has also been hit by the social media wave as millenniums share their experiences on Facebook and Twitter. Untappd social media app allows interaction between beer enthusiast to review the drinks they like and discover the closest breweries, restaurants, and pubs that they can acquire those exact brews. Using the social media app, beer enthusiasts share their experiences and encourage each other to try out different craft beers. In addition, enthusiasts can easily locate restaurants and pubs that have their beer of choice. A survey on drinking trends of millenniums identifies Untappd as influencing beer lovers in the identification of spots that sell certain craft beers, consequently encouraging people to explore the different flavors offered by beer. The trend has seen Canadian beer culture overlook the mass-produced brands in favor of craft beer. In Canada, beer consumption dropped by 6%, but craft beer servings in pubs and restaurants have risen by 7% since 2014. According to Ontario Craft Brewers, craft beer boasts of growing sales of between 20% and 30% annually, thus making it the fastest-growing segment in the beer category. Experimentation is key in brewers’ development, with the trend being linked to a return of classic beer brewing styles. Brewer’s creativity is explored as brewers develop new tastes and flavors through the adoption of traditional beer styles to provide finesse in their beers. According to Ontario Craft Brewers, the aim is to catch the attention of the curious beer enthusiasts who want to relate to the favorite choice of beer.

Social trends continue to influence the demand for craft beers in 2017, with statistics showing an increase in consumer experimentation and a continuous lack of brand loyalty by customers. These trends continue to provide support for the growth of the industry in the coming years. Consumer behavior trends show that consumers are on the lookout for new flavors hence the newest brand or tastes influence the popularity of the brewer. Canadian Millennials and Beverage Alcohol survey establish that while consumers might display a few personal favorites, they tend to drink something new each time they go out for drinks. In the past, brand loyalty gave established brands a market advantage over upcoming brands, which made it difficult for craft beers to compete against international brands. However, the shift in market trends has provided exponential growth in the craft beer industry.

Research indicates that quality is a significant determining factor. The customer base has been identified as disloyal to brands and always in search of new tastes, hence, such a clientele cannot settle for poor quality. While the different flavors determine the growth of brands, it is the quality that determines which brand will last. Thus, if the taste of the beer is not good, clients will fail to buy the beer and immediately shift to their competitors. Current trends dictate that variety is what is driving the craft beer business. As with every other trend, this might change in the future as people start to identify with particular brewers. As a result, people would stop experimenting and start developing preferences of existing brands and rotating between their favorite brands. Craft breweries would continue to provide demand, but their growth would be stagnant, which will prove difficult for new brands to enter the market as before. Quality would be the deciding feature, determining which brewery lasts and which one dies away, just as evidenced by the 90s recession of the craft beer industry. Thus, consistency in the quality of beer would be critical in case harsh times hits the craft beer industry again and consumer trends change.

Canada’s Growth In The Craft Industry

Canada’s growth in the craft industry is driven by the continuous need for new flavors and the demand for local products. Customers lack brand loyalty – they just want different tastes, consequently giving beer brewers equal opportunity in the market. As such, even bad beer can outsell great beer due to this trend, hence, brewers are not pressurized to produce quality beer. The continuous need for new tastes is not only limited to Canada, but is a developing global trend. As a result, breweries have a growing market in Europe for craft beers, and they can thus increase their products through exports. However, with the increasing number of breweries, the quality will play a significant role in determining which brewer lasts in the market. Inconsistent quality would lead to the boycott of products, thus leading to a decrease in sales and a shift in consumer preferences. As stated earlier, if a brewer wants to penetrate their product into the Canadian market, then the introduction of new, unique flavors would greatly assist them in achieving this goal. However, if the brewers want to last longer in the market, consistency in quality is key to their crafting business.

Affordable Care Act Essay Example
Posted by: Write My Essay on: January 12, 2021

The Affordable Care Act and the Federal Patient Protection Act was signed into law in 2010. It was duly dubbed ObamaCare (ACA) since it was introduced by former President Barack Obama. It is a comprehensive act that contains over 2,000 provisions in an over 900 pages act (HealthCare, 2016). This paper provides a review of the Affordable Care Act to highlight its key provisions by utilizing the HealthCare website as a professional and credible source of information regarding the act.

Fundamental tenets of the ACA

The fundamental tenets of the ACA are envisioned to increase health insurance access, curb the rise of healthcare costs, expand the workforce, and improve consumer protection. In order to achieve the insurance expansion tenet, the ACA proposed tax credits to small businesses and made it mandatory for employers to cover their employees’ health insurance, otherwise be liable to pay penalties (HealthCare, 2016). State-based exchanges were created with limits on the premium costs from 2 to 9.5 percent depending on the income. Additionally, the act sought to increase consumer protection by prohibiting insurance plans that exclude children and prohibiting cancellation of coverage (HealthCare, 2016).

A Prevention Fund

Apart from insurance, the ACA established a prevention fund that could provide screening and immunizations. Furthermore, a national council was created to help in the prevention of tobacco and obesity-related problems. Additionally, food companies and restaurants with over 20 locations were required to provide calorie information upon request. Another dimension of the ACA was an improvement of the healthcare quality by increasing the training of nurses and support of nurse-management clinics that serve underprivileged communities in the country (HealthCare, 2016). Furthermore, stiffer penalties were introduced for health insurance fraud by insurance companies seeking to avoid paying claims. One key tenet is the shift from a fee-for-service system to one based on the quality of the service. Finally, the ACA sought to improve patients’ access to generic drugs.

From the above analysis, it is evident that the ACA is a comprehensive overhaul of the American healthcare system. Some of the provisions seek to directly impact the wellbeing of patients, others increase access, and others enhance integrity and transparency from stakeholders (HealthCare, 2016). The main misgiving is that small business exceptions are rare and many businesses either decreased or failed to increase their employees to avoid spending a lot on healthcare cover.

References

HealthCare. (2016, December 16). Affordable Care Act. Retrieved from HealthCare.gov: https://www.healthcare.gov/

 

 

Engagement and Assessment of Communities Essay Example
Posted by: Write My Essay on: January 9, 2021

This research paper explores a number of aspects of the researcher’s chosen community. The aspects under consideration include the description of the community, key informants, reasons for contacting the informants, and important skills for engagement. The community of interest in this paper is the homeless people of Derry City. This is because the issue of homelessness within the city has drawn a lot of public attention due to a number of struggles that these people endure on a daily basis in spite of the city being a commercial hub for many economic models within the country. Also, this issue has cropped up in the city in recent years. Some seven years ago, it was uncommon to witness people sleeping on the streets unlike nowadays. The key informants identified include the homeless people, local authorities, and members of the public over the perceptions that they had towards the homeless within the city. The principal reason for contacting the informants was to establish a true and unbiased view of the homeless community within the city. Finally, two important skills for engagement with the homeless community were identified; these are empathy and rapport building.

Introduction

When undertaking a needs assessment for any community it is imperious that an individual has the relevant skills that allow him or her to integrate with the members of the community so as to undertake a study on their needs and the resources that they have at their disposal so as to meet these needs (Itzhaky & York, 2002). The aim of this assessment was to conduct a needs assessment on a given community so as to establish the best strategies that could be applied so that the needs of the society are met in the long-term.

Description of the Community

The community that I selected and assessed was the homeless people in Derry City. Homelessness within the city has been an issue that has drawn a lot of public attention as a result of the various struggles that these individuals go through on a daily basis despite the city being a business hub for many economic models within the country. The target group will be individuals who do not have permanent shelters in the city or the suburbs and are thereby forced to sleep on the streets.

The majority of the people within this community do not have a job and only rely on food and cash that they are given by well wishers and passers-by on the streets. Due to the lack of income, some rely on welfare support from the local authorities in terms of food and clothing. The main reason that made me choose this community is due to the increase it has been experiencing in the past five years. In 2010, it was rare to find a homeless man on the street; however, this has changed with many homeless people sleeping on the streets today.

Key Informants

Some of the key informants that I identified included the homeless people, local authorities, and members of the public over the perceptions that they had towards the homeless within the city. Other informants included local shops and supermarket owners who are on many occasions on the forefront when dealing with homeless people. The police are also other informants that could provide key details about the society and how their presence in society affects the wellbeing and welfare of the people.

Reasons for contacting the Informants

There are numerous reasons that I identified several informants about the plight of the homeless in Derry City. The first major reason was so as to establish a true and unbiased view about the community. When undertaking such a study, it is important to ensure that all the information that is collected is true and relates to the given community. The homeless would be contacted so as to understand the various factors that contributed to them being on the streets in the first place. Such information could be used in the needs assessment so as to come up with strategies that reduce their presence on the streets. Contacting the local authorities would also be important to the study since it would come up with the various numbers about the group and the various demographic aspects about the selected community.

Important Skills for Engagement

When performing the needs assessment, it is important to possess various skills that can allow a researcher to get the needed pieces of information about society in general. One of the most important skills is empathy. Empathy is the ability of a researcher to understand the needs of the community that is being studied (Kirst-Ashman & Hull, 2012). When dealing with the homeless, it is imperious that a researcher exemplifies a lot of empathy since such empathy is directly related to the level of communication that may take place between the two parties. The homeless are on many occasions starved and failure to show empathy could lead to them not offering the much-needed information for the research to be a success. I chose the skill as a fundamental one since it can be difficult to deal with the group due to the various challenges that it faces on a daily basis.

The second skill that I identified that could be vital in the needs assessment exercise is rapport building. Rapport building is the ability of a researcher to create a harmonious and close relationship between the various groups that exist within the community. In the needs assessment test, rapport building could include the ability to make partnerships with the various groups of informants that were selected so as to clearly come up with vital information that could allow me to study the group so as to come up with the various interventions that could be made so as to ensure that their well-being is enhanced in the future.

References

Kirst-Ashman, K. K., & Hull, G. H., Jr. (2012). Understanding generalist practice (6th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning. Chapter 5, “Engagement and Assessment in Generalist Practice” (pp. 161-206)

Itzhaky, H., & York, A. S. (2002). Showing results in community organization. Social Work, 47(2), 125-131. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Revenue and Pricing Hypothesis Essay Example
Posted by: Write My Essay on: January 7, 2021

Part A

The startup app intends to establish its pricing both on the vendors and consumers end based on theoretical cost analysis and costing process. Based on a revenue streams hypothesis, it is possible to consider the significance of the input of the beauticians in comparison to their costs. Such comparisons are to be made to the income they stand to obtain from being independent with a similar consumer stream. In order to test the hypothesis and create a more practical and market-relevant approach, there emerged the need to interview potential clients and vendors. As such, it would be difficult to establish initial price points without interactions with the customer, which would ease the process of developing ideal pricing and compute expected profit margins.

Interviews of 7 potential clients with respect to the hypotheses resulted in the following responses to the price list. The respondents were majorly positive on the usage of PayPal or credit cards as payment platforms – ideally, since they had used these platforms before in paying for other online services. Beaut-Ease branded product prices were offered, and a number of them responded to having to pay higher prices for high-end beauty services. In this regard, a majority of prices were commended in light of the efficiency that was captured in acquiring them (through delivery and accompanied by services). However, the pricing of products that did not require service accompaniment was pointed out as being above the standard market value by too many price points, and the value of delivery and convenience was not considered to justify the rather high pricing of the products. These included Deep Clean Charcoal Clay Mask and Exotic Exfoliation Body and Facial Scrub CoCo, whose pricing ($30-$50) could not be justified without the provision of accompanying services.

However, on the side of the startup, the cost of establishing services in substitution of the application of clay masks and body and facial scrubs was not justifiable. These beauty treatments are commonly self-served and easy to use and apply. In this regard, setting the price for accompanying service is not ideal due to the inability of Beaut-Ease to incorporate associated service. In response to the inclusion of supplies for the vendors, there were interactions with six respondents, who were assessed in their interest in pricing in response to the proposed price points for service and its delivery to the comfort of the client. The proposed division of revenue from 25% for the startup and 75% for the vendor was deemed suitable by a significant number of respondents, provided that the pricing was suitably above that available for the vendors acting on a private basis. Most of the respondents were confident about the hourly approach to payment as opposed to the standard approach of payment per session of service. The hourly rates are appealing to the standard range beautician, and increases their bottom-line through the reduction of the cost of supplies, and only demanding their skill.

Additionally, the provision of a competitive edge to these service vendors increases their drive towards increasing their work input to enhance their standing and ratings within the app. The professional in this case, in earning a commission for offering services, allows for the enhancement of their brand. The estheticians’ abilities, according to some respondents, should reflect the amount of business they receive, and this is observable in the inclusion of an opportunity for the clients to rate the service. Although most of the respondents’ interests were not aligned with custom pricing, the hypothetical interest expressed a commonly stated question on whether such competitive pricing would result in higher turnaround and customer retention rates. As such, the initial pricing models may require modifications to fit this requirement and allow for the increased interaction of service providers among themselves for better pricing models.

Part B

The following results emerged from considering the revenue hypothesis in light of respondents relevant to the usage of the services or acting as professional beauticians.

Are 70% of users willing to pay a membership fee?

Professionals logging onto the platform as service providers are willing to pay a membership fee, with a majority of them preferred that the amount be annual and justifiable within the expected returns. Of the respondents, 80% were comfortable with a membership fee contingent on their gaining from payment of such fee within the guarantee of gaining a similar amount in less than a month of serving within the platform. The rationale behind this interest is to safeguard the service providers from paying a redundant fee that would not benefit them. In addition, these professionals may require the justification of the price of membership on a less frequent basis, especially since they submit 25% of revenue on a consistent basis to the service in exchange for clients. Additionally, it is arguable that the payment of a membership fee would increase the responsibility of the professionals to committing to service provision in the interests of the app as opposed to the risk-free operation that would be damaging to other members. A similar requirement, therefore, captured the willingness of the users to pay the fee to make a commitment to the service provision process.

Would 80% of customers be willing to download the free app?

All the respondents interviewed were ready to download the free app given that all emergent charges were only for the provision of services. Their response was justified by their interest in exploring and testing the convenience on offer from the app, and with the app being free, they were won over. More than half of the respondents expressed interest in comparing the prices on offer from the free app to their current spending on independent service providers and contractors. However, not all these customers expressed their interest in sampling the quality of services if the pricing of such service could not be justified by convenience against their competition. It would, therefore, be suitable to pivot the pitch for the consumers to a cost-friendly approach in initial pricing, ideally to convince the users on the level of quality of the services. However, the free app would motivate increased downloading and testing of the services by potential clients.

Are 50% of customers willing to purchase products from the Beaut-Ease Skin Care Line?

From the respondents willing to download the free app, only 40% were already willing to buy products on the app without any kind of guarantee on quality. This limits the level of business that the startup expects in the initial stages. However, there are opportunities to motivate purchasing, with initial offers for the users, where the motivation for consumption would increase with an established clientele base (Bates & Robb, 2014). Additionally, this initial reluctance to purchase from the app may be eased by offering attractive pricing in the initial setting to promote purchases. In the overall sense, this reluctance emerges from the unfamiliarity of the users with this form of service and product delivery.

Part C

Revenue Streams

100% of income will come from payments facilitated by PayPal and major credit cards when the service sales are paid online by customers. This absolute approach to payment is in the response of clients in fully proffering these methods, especially since they have used them before on other online purchases and service interactions. These platforms are an attempt to eliminate cash-based payment which would shortchange the startup. Additionally, the proposed platforms offer secure payment options that can be liaised with to facilitate eased payment options with free transactions for the clients.

10% of income comes from Beaut-Ease Skin Care products (scrubs and masks) available for online purchase and beauty service upsells. This hypothetical stance is retained due to its suitability to the business model provided by the service providers and the preferences of the clients. As such, 10% is deemed suitable for service upsells and online purchases.

7.5% of income comes from membership fees and registration fees of beauty service employees. The increase in the percentage demanded from the professionals is captured in their initial interest in joining the platform and enhancing their bottom line. As such, it is possible to take a larger percentage of the income from the initial fees, which will facilitate the setting up of services for the benefits of these beauty service employees. Also, it makes it easier to engage the demands of the employees in aligning pricing indices to the preferences of the clients and end-users.

Free download for customers to access Beaut-Ease Travelling Service Mobile App. This hypothesis is maintained due to the advantages it presents to the startup in introducing the services to the users and increasing their interest in recognizing the services on offer and the pricing. However, the free download requires being coupled with a similarly attractive pricing approach from which the users are motivated to try out the products and services on offer (Jelfs & Thomson, 2016). With the responses from the clients regarding buying new products without motivation, there emerges the need to market the products using pricing that is competitive. This can then be coupled with the selling point of the service, which is convenient for the client at similar pricing.

Part D

App Developers and Associated Services

Q: What timelines can be expected in maintenance and system setting up processes?

A: The development can be completed within six weeks, with the flexibility of up to two weeks to complete the process.

Q: What charges are on offer in the initial startup days?

A: Development will cost $3500 for setting up, $1000 for initial modifications and maintenance operations.

Q: What credit options exist for service provision from the developers?

A: The developers have credit options of up to 50% financing of the development over a period of six months.

Investors

Q: What timelines are required from the investor for the initial return on investment?

A: The investors will offer a grace period of 6 months for the initial response for returns on investment for a period spanning up to two years.

Q: How well can credit be stretched to fulfill financial requirements from the company?

A: Credit facilities will be offered, with a line of credit of up to $10,000 for furthering the initial setting up of the app and establishment of inventory for the testing phase.

Q: What is the ideal credit interest does the investor possess?

A: The most suitable credit interest would be capped at 10%, with an associated reducing balance on the line of credit. It would mean that a reducing value of interest would be offered with the picking of the business.

 

References

Bates, T., & Robb, A. (2014). Small-business viability in America’s urban minority communities. Urban Studies, 51(13), 2844-2862. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0042098013514462

Jelfs, A., & Thomson, H. (2016). Marketing small and medium sized enterprises in the digital age: Opportunities and challenges. Teaching Business & Economics, 20(1), 4-7.

Cyberbullying of Children and Teen Essay Example
Posted by: Write My Essay on: January 6, 2021

Bullying in the classical sense refers to the sustained or recurrent physical or verbal attacks on a child or teenager by one or more peers. Usually, the suspects are individuals who are unwilling or unable to de-escalate the bullying. Typically, bullying involved physical assault, verbal harassment, taunting, humiliation, intimidation, and coercion. However, children and teenagers spend more time on their electronic devices. They interact more on social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook, and Whatsapp than any previous generation. However, this interaction has led to the development of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying is a term that refers to sustained and recurrent social, verbal, and emotional abuse of a child by their peers using information technology. Cyberbullying takes the form of harassing texts, unapproved posts of humiliating pictures, disparaging social media comments, and direct threats using online platforms. Statistics show that that seven in ten people under 18 years have experienced some form of cyberbullying. The statistics also seem to show that one in every three victims of cyberbullying tries to self-harm (UN Chronicle, 2016). Clearly, cyberbullying has an effect on the emotional and physical well-being of the individual. This paper seeks to investigate the causes and consequences of cyberbullying as well as developing some solutions to prevent cases of cyberbullying.

Cyberbullying causes

The prevalence of cyberbullying is quite alarming, but there is a need to understand the causes of cyberbullying to understand why it is so prevalent. A study by Hoff and Michell (2009) sought to investigate this by conducting an open-ended survey. Their study seemed to reveal that there are found predominant reasons students engaged in cyberbullying. Hoff and Michell (2009) found that breakups were the predominant cause of cyberbullying accounting for 41 percent of cases. Among children and teenagers, breakups were the predominant reason for cyberbullying. Normally, one of the jilted exes posted information about the information on social media. In most cases, this information is not positive. They also found that envy was the reason for 20 percent of cyberbullying. Envy was normally a result of students who were romantically attracted to others, but they were ignored. This envy led to cyberbullying as a way of getting back to the other individual or their romantic interest. Intolerance accounted for 16 percent while ganging up accounted for 14 percent. In the study, intolerance referred to the cases where cyberbullies were trying to feel better about themselves or because they wanted the other person to feel the same misery they felt. Hoff and Michell (2009) believe intolerance is the same reason for classical bullying, but it has taken a digital appearance. Finally, students would gang up against students who they did not want to be part of their group.

A similar study was conducted by Mishna et al. (2010) who found that 33.7 percent of the students in middle and high schools admitted to having cyberbullied one or more of their peers. In 22 percent of the cases, the method of cyberbullying was calling other people bad names. An additional 14 percent was by pretending to be someone else, 11 percent was spreading bad rumors, five percent was threatening others and finally, three percent sent unwelcoming pictures or texts to others. The information showed that 52 percent of the bullying was aimed at a friend, 21 percent was aimed at other students in school, and 11 percent was aimed at students in other schools while six percent was aimed at complete strangers. Mishna et al. (2010) also revealed the reasons why students bullied others. Their findings showed that 25 percent of them believed that cyberbullying others made them funny. Other reasons for making fun of others included the target’s appearance, race, school performance, sexuality, disability, gender, and family of the person they were bullying. Mishna et al. (2010) were able to show that cyberbullies got some form of aesthetic pleasure from cyberbullying others. Most of them believed that cyberbullying made them more popular, funny, and powerful. However, these feelings were normally followed by guilt or regret for their actions.

A study by Cowie (2013) reviewed the causes of cyberbullying among children and adolescents and found that the primary cause was the reaction to the break-up of both romantic and platonic relationships. Additionally, the individuals who bullied others normally did so when they were envious of the other person or when they had some form of prejudiced intolerance towards them. However, there seemed to be a lot of bullying occurring due to gender differences between individuals. Sometimes the individuals were intolerant of the other students’ sexual orientation, disability, or ethnicity. Cowie (2013) also found that there was an overlap between the traditional form of bullying and cyberbullying. The research seems to indicate that people who bully others physically were willing to extend the bullying to cyberspace and vice versa.

Another study by Low and Espelage (2013) reviewed the causes of cyberbullying from a psychological perspective. The study showed that parental supervision and cyberbullying were interrelated. Children and teens who have the least adult supervision engaged the most in cyberbullying. In Caucasian female children, alcohol and drug use were increased the bullying behavior between participants. Low and Espelage (2013) also found that family conflict seemed to increase the possibility of engaging in cyberbullying. There were high levels of hostility and depression when it comes to white teen males and African-American males respectively. Additionally, African-American teens were more likely to engage in cyberbullying because there are less parental supervision and family cohesion as compared to other races. The research by Low and Espelage (2013) found that behavior is related to emotional processing by teenagers and children. These students seemed to bully others as a way of dealing with their emotions or managing bullying from their families. The specific risk factors highlight the reasons why some adolescent youth are willing to engage in cyberbullying.

Cyberbullying consequences

            One of the most authoritative figures on the effects of cyberbullying is Michael Wright who has reviewed the psychological effects. According to Wright (2016), has highlighted that cyberbullying victims suffer from a lot of psychological issues. Most of the time, cyberbullying caused a lot of depression in children and teens. Wright (2016) highlighted cases of increased loneliness and sadness, disruption of eating and sleeping patterns, loss of interest in social activities leading to hermit-like behavior, and the health problems associated with depression. In many cases, the individuals had chronic anxiety when it came to going to school. Wright (2016) highlighted that this resulted in cases of missing, dropping out, and skipping school to avoid coming face-to-face with the perpetrators of cyberbullying. As a result, many of the children and teenagers who are victims of cyberbullying tend to have poor grades due to inconsistent attendance in school. They have low self-esteem leading to a higher risk of falling into exploitative relationships later in life. Wright (2016) also highlighted that victims tend to have a high likelihood of engaging in drugs and alcohol. In extreme cases, bullying can lead to suicidal thoughts. The suicidal tendencies also create problems in adult life as individuals who were victims of cyberbullying as children are more likely to attempt suicide as adults.

            In another study, Wright (2016) investigated the emotional responses and attributions in dealing with coping strategies. In his study, he found that adolescents who were cyberbullied seemed to experience emotions of embarrassment, worry, stress, anxiety, sadness, and fear. Wright (2016) also found that in other cases, the victims of cyberbullying seemed to feel offended, defenseless, scared, and rejected. Clearly, cyberbullying victims develop emotional issues that normally lead to depression when they are compounded. In other cases, the victims develop coping mechanisms to deal with the emotional strain that arises from the cyberbullying. The first type of coping mechanism for most is retaliation where they target the cyberbullies for revenge. This coping mechanism normally leads to a perpetuation of the cyberbullying culture. The second coping mechanism is avoidant behavior that seeks to ignore the aggressor. This may be effective in reducing cyberbullying of other individuals, but the damage to the victim’s emotion has already been done. Wright (2016) also found that the best coping mechanism was seeking emotional support. The strategy allows the victims to deal with the attribution of emotions that arises from cyberbullying.

Additional research by Aoyama et al. (2011) found that the effects of cyberbullying are somewhat the same as those in classical cases of bullying. However, the effects seem to be amplified. Aoyama et al. (2011) believe that the reason for this is the frequency and the fluidity of cyberbullying. In some cases, Cyberbullying can involve an entire class or grade making it more brutal for the victims. They found that students who are harassed online are twice as likely to show depression symptoms as those who are bullied physically. Their research also showed that victims of cyberbullying had lower self-esteem and self-consent. Clearly, the emotional impact of cyberbullying seems to be exponentially greater than the effect of physical bullying. Aoyama et al. (2011) also found that cyberbullying led to greater social anxiety because the victims developed a distrust for their peers and other people in the public. This distrust makes it harder for these individuals to seek help from their peers. Moreover, victims seemed more reluctant to inform teachers and parents of cyberbullying for fear that they would lose online privileges or that their internet access would be restricted. These factors compounded make cyberbullying a lot worse than classical bullying.

According to Akturk (2015), found that victims of cyberbullying tend to develop sensitivity. The sensitivity is used with instances when the individual has been encountered by unfamiliar stimuli. This results in a cognitive realignment that assumes that everyone and everything has nefarious intentions to harm him or her. As per Akturk (2016), the reason for this is the perception that the individual is under threat due to the distrust developed after experiencing cyberbullying. In many cases, cyberbullying is perpetrated by people the victim considers peers and the profound distrust that develops leads to a lot of sensitivity. In some cases, Akturk (2016) suggests that the individual develops coping mechanisms that appear tyrannical in nature. The victims may start threatening other individuals as a precaution to avoid being cyberbullied in the future. At this point, the victims also tend to become perpetrators of cyberbullying. This cyclic effect leads to an increase in cyberbullying. Akturk (2015) also identifies cases where cyberbullying individuals got lower grades and developed anti-social behavior to avoid cases of cyberbullying. This increases the chances of adolescent delinquency as the victims seek drugs and alcohol as a way of relieving the stress and anxiety that they experience.

One of the researchers who reviewed the relationship between cyberbullying and suicide is Nixon (2014). As per his research, there is a great association between suicidal behavior and cyberbullying. The research showed that cyberbullying led to an increase in the likelihood of self-harm in individuals. Nixon (2014) found that cyberbullying had a more profound impact on the tendency of self-harm as compared to classical self-healing. The reason is the increase in depression and negative emotions. Additionally, there is a lot of emotional harm for the victims. The same effect leads to an increase in suicidal behavior. Nixon (2014) also found that face-to-face bullying victims could always seek respite from their peers but the scale of cyber bullying causes so much distrust in victims that they are unwilling to engage in cyberbullying. Nixon (2014) expanded cases of suicidal behavior to encompass the self-inflicted harm that involved cases of substance abuse and involvement in physical violence. The studies seemed to indicate that the cyberbullying and the broad suicidal behavior is exponential. Additionally, there are physical effects like poor physical health, headaches, insomnia, and stomach aches. Clearly, cyberbullying has a greater negative effect on the health of children and teenagers.

Cyberbullying solutions

Hoff and Mitchel (2009) suggested certain specific measures that can help reduce the cases of cyberbullying. The first prong is the education of students with the need for cyber accountability to ensure that they avoid cyberbullying. When the students are informed of the consequences of cyberbullying, they will be less willing to engage in cyberbullying. Another prong is the involvement of the parents in internet accountability. Involving parents will help monitor cases of cyberbullying. It will also provide victims with a platform to seek emotional support. Hoff and Mitchell (2009) also suggest that school administrators need to be trained in identifying cases of cyberbullying. Those who bully others need to be punished as a deterrent to others. Educators need to develop an environment where all the students can study without any fear. In order to improve parental supervision, the educators train the parents on how to identify and deal with students who are both perpetrators and victims of cyberbullying. A combination of parental and educator efforts will reduce cases of cyberbullying and ensure that victims are able to deal with the psychological trauma.

Another study by Nandhinia and Sheebab (2015) sought to reduced cases of online cyberbullying by using software that would investigate, classify, and flag cases of cyberbullying. Their solution is based on the integration of genetic and fuzzy logic. Their solution involved the classification of bullying and harassment, racism, taunting, and flaming. Nandhinia and Sheebab (2015)’s procedure would involve the use of fuzzy logic in the location and retrieval of data that would be used as input. Thereafter, the genetic algorithm is used in obtaining precise output by optimizing the parameters obtained using fuzzy logic. These systems can be used by administrators and parents in monitoring cases of cyberbullying.

Another study by Notar et al. (2013) looked at the role that schools have to play in the reduction of cases of cyberbullying. The first step was to seek legislation that will help school districts deal with cyberbullying. One of the main loopholes that students can use to avoid punishment is by stating that the bullying did not happen in the school compound. Notar et al. (2013) suggest that legislation can be made to allow punishment for off-school offenses including cyberbullying. There are certain schools that have already embraced this including New Jersey and South Dakota. Legislation can go a step further allowing the establishment of anti-bullying laws that will enforce cases of physical and cyberbullying. These two measures provide a legal mandate for schools to search and monitor nefarious online interactions in a bid to reduced cases of cyberbullying. Notar et al. (2013) suggest that schools should also sponsor programs that will help create awareness of the detrimental effects of cyberbullying. The programs can be district-sponsored allowing all students in a school district to be provided measures of dealing with cyberbullying. These sponsored events can allow educators to learn the ways of detecting and countering cyberbullying efforts. An extra measure can be the inclusion of curriculum-based programs that ensure that all students are aware of the consequences of cyberbullying. Parents can also be informed of the numerous filter programs that can be used in monitoring the texts and social media posts of their children. An increase in parental involvement is likely to reduce the cases of cyberbullying. Parents need to be informed of the best ways of preventing cyberbullying without contravening the children’s online privacy act. Some applications provide an adequate measure of protection without going against any children’s rights. The programs only highlight cases of aggression via text or social media posts.

Finally, Chaux et al. (2016) conducted research on the relationship between cyberbullying and traditional bullying. Their results revealed that there were a lot of similarities. As a result of the similarities, most of the solutions of classical bullying can be applied in cyberbullying. The only difference was the effect of bullying on the victim. Chaux et al. (2016) suggest that cyberbullying is more amplified and as a result, the measures used to deal with it should also be amplified. Punishments should be more severe, and the counseling given to victims needs to be more effective.

Cyberbullying in children and teenagers can be caused by numerous factors. Hoff and Mitchell (2009) highlighted breakups, envy, intolerance, and ganging up as the main causes of cyberbullying. The study by Mishna showed that cyberbullies believed that cyberbullying made them more popular, funny, and powerful. The research found an overlap between classical and cyberbullying. Low and Espelage (2013) provided the best information when they found that perpetrators of cyberbullying were normal individuals suffering from issues at home. Additionally, African-American teens were found the most likely to cyberbully others due to the lack of parenting as well as the lack of family cohesion. A review of the consequences revealed that children and teens who were cyberbullied tended to suffer from depression. Additionally, there were numerous cases of missing, dropping out, and skipping school by the cyberbully victim. Wright (2016) found that the coping mechanisms led them to either be reactive, avoidance, or one that sought some form of emotional support. Studies also seemed to show that the cyberbullying victims developed a lot of sensitivity due to the fear of additional victimization. The bleakest finding was that suicide cases are higher when it comes to cyberbullying than in the classical case of bullying. There were some solutions proposed to help deal with cases of cyberbullying. Studies showed that the education of the students and teachers helps reduce the cases of cyberbullying. Additionally, parents need to be taught to embrace internet accountability. Notar et al. (2013) suggested the development of legislation at the school district and state level to allow schools to punish cases of cyberbullying that happens outside the school. Additionally, parents should be given the right to monitor the devices for their children without litigation. Finally, researchers proposed the development of programs using genetic algorithms and fuzzy logic to deal with cyberbullying. Cyberbullying is a serious topic, but the term paper provides a holistic overview of information.

References

Akturk, A. O. (2015). Analysis of cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social support levels. Interactive Technology and Smart Education, 44-61.

Aoyama, I., Saxon, T. F., & Fearon, D. D. (2011). Internalizing problems among cyberbullying victims and moderator effects of friendship quality. Multicultural Education & Technology Journal, 92-105.

Chaux, E., Vekasquez, A. M., Scultze-Krumbholz, A., & Scheithauer, H. (2016). Effects of the Cyberbullying Prevention Program Media Heroes on Traditional Bullying. Aggressive Behavior, 157-165.

Cowie, H. (2013). Cyberbullying and its impact on young people’s emotional health and well-being. The Psychiatrist Online, 167-170.

Hoff, D. L., & Mitchell, S. N. (2009). Cyberbullying: causes, effects, and remedies. Journal of Educational Administration, 652-665.

Low, S., & Espelage, D. (2012). Differentiating cyber bullying perpetration from non-physical bullying: Commonalities across race, individual, and family predictors. Psychology of Violence, 39-52.

Mishna, F., Cook, C., Gadalla, T., Daciuk, J., & Solomon, S. (2010). Cyber Bullying Behaviors Among Middle and High School Students. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 362-374.

Nandhinia, B., & Sheebab, J. (2015). Online Social Network Bullying Detection Using Intelligence Techniques. Procedia Computer Science, 485-492.

Nixon, C. L. (2014). Current perspectives: the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health. Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, 143-158.

Notar, C. E., Padgett, S., & Roden, J. (2013). Cyberbullying: Resources for Intervention and Prevention. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 133-145.

UN Chronicle. (2016, December 4). Cyberbullying and Its Implications for Human Rights. Retrieved from UN Chronicle: https://unchronicle.un.org/article/cyberbullying-and-its-implications-human-rights

Wright, M. F. (2016). Cyber victimization and psychological adjustment difficulties among adolescents. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 536-550.

Wright, M. F. (2016). Cybervictims’ emotional responses, attributions, and coping strategies for cyber victimization: a qualitative approach. Safer Communities, 160-169.

 

 

Environmental Destruction in Congo Essay Example
Posted by: Write My Essay on: January 5, 2021

Introduction

The Democratic Republic of Congo is home to some of the most exotic animals and rare vegetation. Occupied by more than 60 million, Congo is a vast stretch of land located in the Central African region (Butler, 2006). Whereas in the past, the region comprised the vegetative hub of Africa, recent times have seen an increase in deforestation which negates the lives of flora and fauna in the region. Deforestation has led to the decrease in the total forest area, seen the death and relocation of wildlife from the Congo forest, and led to the drying up of rivers that initially formed an intrinsic part of Congo’s identity.

Root Causes of Environmental Degradation

Congo constitutes the vegetative hub of the African continent. More than any other country, the region is made up of diverse flora and fauna. However, the rapid change that is taking place as a result of the expansion of human activities allows one the opportunity to assess the implications of increased interactions between flora and fauna. Furthermore, other causes of environmental degradation include constant conflict, poaching, and unregulated mining in the Congo region (Butler, 2006).

The study of the environmental degradation in Congo further allows one the opportunity to examine the influences of economic activities on the overall environmental stability. The directed dissection of the environmental failures in Congo provides an opportunity to determine the methods that can be employed to mitigate the spread of the environmental scourge on other countries in the African region to preserve the life of all the living things that depend on the forest for sustenance.

Comparison of the Current State of Environment with that of the Past

Whereas in the past, Congo was lauded as the center of national parks in the central African region, recent times have witnessed a reduction in wildlife population that was considered to be rare and exotic (Faller & Wang, 2015). This decrease was a consequence of the wanton destruction of vegetation which results from an increase in urban settlements and human conflicts in the region.

Comparison with Other Countries

Compared to other nations in Africa, the environmental degradation in Congo has seen a greater reduction in the size of the total forest area. Furthermore, the rivers in Congo, which once held freshwater, are increasingly drying up rendering such waters inaccessible to the human population (Gleick, 1993). Furthermore, climate change, from humid to increased warmth in the Congo region, is higher than is the same for other countries. Given the absence of succinct environmental policies to curtail the prevalence of the problem in the society, the destruction of the environment is more rampant in the Congo region than in any other African region.

Environmental Resources under Threat

Some of the environmental resources that are under threat in the Congo region include the forests, rivers, wildlife parks, farms and wildlife such as rhinos (Nackoney, et al., 2014). A reduction in the total area of the tropical forests leads to a reduction in the rivers which ultimately leads to the death or relocation of animals that were housed in the region. Furthermore, increased conflicts in the regions lead to the destruction of the flora.

Evidence to Show Environmental Destruction in Congo

According to Nackoney et al. (2014), deforestation constitutes a major environmental concern in the central African region. The alarming rates of the deforestation of tropical forests are projected to be a consequence of the increased human economic activities. Essentially, an increase in mining and clearing of land for agricultural purposes leads to the degradation of the environment as it kills the flora that forms an intrinsic part of these forests. Likewise, as an evidence of the environmental destruction in Congo, recent times have seen a reduction in the number of large predators. According to FAO (2011), the massive rate of fauna in the Congo region interferes with the nutrient diffusion in the region which leads to the death of the involved predators and exotic vegetation.

Discussion

Deforestation constitutes a major environmental concern in the Congo region. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2011), the rate of deforestation in the Congo region stands at 0.2%. Therefore, more than 300,000 hectares of forest land is destroyed on an annual basis. Furthermore, as an evidence of the prevalence of logging activities in the region which negate the stability of the environment, it is estimated that logging activities have increased from 4.45 million cubic meters in 1990 to 75.44 million cubic meters currently (FAO, 2011).

Such an increase translates to a significant decrease in the number of trees that are found in the forest. Likewise, Butler (2006) suggests that the reduction of the fauna that was found in the Congo region is a result of the pervasive hunting escapades undertaken by poachers. The author predicates that the Congo government, in the acknowledgment of the environmental degradation that is resulting from poaching, has repeatedly engaged policy frameworks that protect parks against invasion by poachers (Butler, 2006).

Majorly, human activities are responsible for the environmental degradation that is being observed in the Congo region (Gleick, 1993). To begin with, political conflicts in the Congo region lead to the destruction of flora. Most of the factions involved in the disputes often engage in forests which lead to the destruction of the trees and the death of many wildlife. The need to develop strategic vantage points leads to the wanton felling of trees in the Congo forest and further exposes flora to the direct gaze of impeding weather conditions. Principally, conflicts undertaken in the Congo region impede the stability of the flora.

Similarly, mining activities have seen an increase in recent years. Congo is known to be the hub of mining since it is made up of diverse mineral resources ranging from Gold to mining (Trefon, 2016). In order to access these minerals, the mining companies are often compelled to drill the ground and dig large holes which impede the stability of the soil structure. In order to access the mineral-rich areas, the mining companies are also forced to clear the bushes around the regions which significantly erodes the soil. After the completion of the mining activities, it is a common phenomenon that the mining companies overlook the need to engage reforestation initiatives in order to curtail further degradation of the soil.

Human settlement expansion is also one of the leading causes of environmental destruction in the Congo region. Essentially, when individuals wish to establish permanent residences in new regions within the forests, they often clear the surrounding land which leads to the felling of many trees and the destruction of the flora that is available in the subject community (Gleick, 1993). An increase in population occasioned by stability in the political environment significantly led to the increase in settlements which in turn led to a reduction in the flora available in the community.

Similarly, developmental projects are responsible for the increase in the degradation of the environment. An expansion of road networks conducted in recent times led to an increase in the number of trees and flora which were cleared to pave the way for the new infrastructure. The expansion of the industries further necessitates the need to create land which in turn impedes the environment. An increase in urban settlements as a consequence of the improved road networks further instigates an increase in the demand for wood in the form of charcoal. The demand for charcoal has seen a tripled increase between 1990 and 2016 (FAO, 2011). Furthermore, the need for wildlife meat leads to an increase in hunting escapades which result in a reduction of game available in the forests.

The victims of environmental destruction in the Congo region constitute the poor in the Congo society. The average Congolese is forced to contend with the environmental implications that result from mining (Nackoney, et al., 2014). When mining takes place in a given region, residents are often compelled to seek new settlements to pave the way for the drilling initiatives. Furthermore, they are further forced to contend with an increase in air pollution which results from the fumes that are released into the air when mining is conducted.

Environmental destruction further affects the administrative body of Congo. The government of Congo is tasked with the duty of protecting the interests of its majority citizens. Poaching and uncontrollable mining negate this desire. In the end, it is compelled to bear liability for all the activities that are undertaken by unscrupulous businessmen whose main aims are to promote their economic standings. Businesspeople in the region are also affected by environmental destructions since they cannot oversee their productive roles effectively given the limitations imposed on them by the government with the intent of mitigating environmental destruction (Trefon, 2016).

In order to minimize the rates of environmental destruction, the Congo government has often made it a priority to establish policies that protect flora and fauna. For instance, in 2002, the administrative body, in recognition of the increase in wanton logging activities in the forest, issued a caveat on the distribution of the logging concessions (Faller & Wang, 2015). Given that this decree was largely flouted, the World Bank extended the country a $90 million grant to enable the material empowerment of the forces that were tasked with the duty of enforcing the decree (Faller & Wang, 2015).

Other than this initiative, Congo joined a group of countries in 2005 which were aligned towards the protection of tropical forests in their regions. These countries sought funds from developed countries to enable them to oversee the environmental protection initiative. The majority of these countries, including Congo, won such grants after clearly documenting what they were meant for. Lastly, the government has often partnered with concerned NGOs to streamline the protection of endangered species against poaching by creating reserves that are inaccessible to the human population.

The policy initiatives engaged by the government do not fully address the destruction of the environment. For instance, the logging concessions in 2002, given the inability to enforce them, led to their abuse by businesspeople and logging companies (Butler, 2006). Furthermore, the policy initiatives do not emphasize the need for transparency which instigates rebellion within the business world. Thus, environment destruction comprises one of the major challenges that face the Congolese people. It is projected that environmental destruction may continue to increase in the region given the ineffectiveness of the policies that are established by the government.

So far, the policy solutions have proven to be futile since environmental destruction continues to beleaguer the people of Congo. There is a need for the government to collude with internal and international stakeholders to determine measures that will be taken against individuals found guilty of breaching the policies set forth by the government given the need to protect the environment (Trefon, 2016). There is a need for increasingly interventionist measures to curtail the propagation of environmental degradation in Congo.

Conclusion

            Environmental destruction constitutes one of the major challenges facing the Democratic Republic of Congo. Recent times have seen an increase in deforestation and air pollution which impede the health sustainability of the people of the Congo. Some of the consequences of environmental destruction include a reduction in the size of land that is occupied by tropical forests. Water levels have also reduced given the drying up of rivers which initially run throughout the year. The Congo setting serves to document the changes that occur on flora and fauna given the increased human activities in regions which were previously inhabited. From its environmental challenges, countries can be able to establish ways by which they can cushion themselves against environmental destruction.

Still, compared to other African countries, Congo can be said to be more effective in curtailing the spread of environmental destruction. The country has been able to retain the majority of the vegetation that is available to it despite the increase in population. Unregulated mining constitutes one of the major environmental challenges in the region. Mining activities take up large tracts of land which curtails the growth of flora and thus environmental destruction. On the other hand, the development of road infrastructure has increasingly led to the felling of trees and the clearing of bushes which interferes with the nutritious circle in the forests and leads to the death of vegetation.

Recommendations

To curtail the prevalence of environmental destruction in the Congo region, there is a need for the engagement of the following measures and initiatives:

  • Documentation of the policies addressing the destruction of the environment in the constitution to discourages malpractices.
  • Seizing of the resources available to mining companies should they be found guilty of breaching the tacit agreement with the government with regards to environmental destruction.
  • Increased engagement of non-governmental organizations in the mitigation of environmental destruction.
  • Establish a force that is solely tasked with the duty of protecting the environmental interests of the people of the Congo.
  • Creation of reserve settlements to house animals on the brink of extinction.
  • The marking of regions in the Congo forest that comprise some of the important resource points of the country.

 

References

Butler, R. A. (2006, January 9). Diversities of Image-Rainforest Biodiversity. Retrieved from Mongabay: http://www.rainforests.mongabay.com/20zaire.htm

Faller, K. S., & Wang, P. Y. (2015). The major environmental problems in Congo Brazzaville: Case of Brazzaville. Journal of Finance and Accounting, 3(1), 1-7.

FAO. (2011). The State of Forests in the Amazon Basin and Southeast Asia. Brazzaville, Republic of Congo: FAO.

Gleick, P. (1993). Water in crisis: A guide to the World’s Freshwater Resources. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Nackoney, J., Molinario, G., Potapov, P., Turubanova, S., Hansen, M. C., & Furuichi, T. (2014). Impacts of civil conflict on primary forest habitat in northern Democratic Republic of Congo, 1990-2010. Elsevier, 1-8.

Trefon, T. (2016). Congo’s Environmental Paradox: Potential and Predation in a Land of Plenty (African Arguments). London: Zed Books.

Ethics in the Workplace Essay Example
Posted by: Write My Essay on: January 2, 2021

Erica works as an IT office at a hospital and is responsible for ensuring that all the systems are up and running. Her job at the department is important since she is there to make sure that everything is up and running smoothly. This ensures that both the staff and the patients are well served. One day, however, Erica claimed that she had to leave to somewhere else where she had to help someone – to fix a system failure that would lead to massive losses. She, therefore, lied to Nancy, her colleague; so that her superiors would not find out that she had left.

 

Erica was, however, very important in the department. She was the only reliable person who could ensure that the systems were up and running. If the systems ever went down, there would be chaos and there would be a lot of inconvenience in all the departments. Thus, she knew that her superiors wanted her to be present at all instances. Nancy, therefore, only told her superiors what Erica had told her; that she had an emergency. Erica and Nancy, however, knew that the system rarely fails, and that there was little to no chance that her actions would negatively impact the hospital. Luckily, the system never failed, and everything ran smoothly. Furthermore, she was able to prevent massive data loss from the other system.

The Ethical Dilemma

The ethical dilemma here is whether or not it was ethical for Erica to leave her regular work knowing the risks involved if she was not around. The system failure would have caused files to be inaccessible and the hospital to run very chaotically if a mess would not have been fixed soon. However, she also knew that rarely did it happen, and she desperately needed to fix a system failure somewhere else. Also, since the other company had contacted her, she was the only personnel that they knew who had the required expertise to fix their system – otherwise, they would have contacted somebody else instead. Thus, somehow, if the other system went terribly wrong she was to blame for the mess because she had the required expertise but declined not to help.

Analyzing this from the Utilitarian perspective, the ethical choice was to take the action that had the best utility. On one hand, she had a system failure. On the other hand, there was one that had already failed but was not part of her job. Her actions were ethical since, in the end, there was no one that was hurt, nor was there any loss. Her estimations of a possible system failure at the hospital were correct. Additionally, her lie to her colleagues can also be considered ethical since it was an action important in achieving the objective. Utilitarianism means that an action can only be ethical if it brings pleasure to most people (Muglan, 2014). In this case, the person at risk was Erica, who could have lost her job. Her unhappiness was not important since there were more people that would have suffered if the system failure was not fixed.

The Deontological Perspective

From the deontological perspective, her actions were unethical. For an action to be considered moral from Kantian ethics, no person should be used as a means to an end (Stern, 2015). One of the unethical actions includes lying to someone. Erica, in this case, decided to lie to Nancy in order to achieve her objective. The action in this case is lying. No one likes being lied to and therefore, can be considered unethical. Despite the outcome, the end does not justify the means.

From the scenario, one learns that morality depends on one’s perspective. Different ethical theories define moral standards differently. In this case, the utilitarian theory classifies this as moral while the deontological perspective considers this as an immoral action. However, the analyses of both perspectives are considered to be correct based on their underlying principle.

Reference

Muglan, T. (2014). Understanding Utilitarianism. New Jersey: Routledge.

Stern, R. (2015). Kantian Etihics: Value, Aegency and Obligation. London: Oxford University Press.

 

Suicide in LGBT Youth – Action Plan Essay Example
Posted by: Write My Essay on: January 1, 2021

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are a vulnerable population that often face criticisms both within and outside their homes. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, LGBT youth are more than two times more likely to contemplate or attempt suicide, when compared to their heterosexual peers (CDC, 2017). This likely stems from other issues they face throughout their lives. In fact, according to a study conducted from 2001 until 2009 across the United States, 12-18% of LGBT students had been threatened or assaulted with a weapon, 18-29% had experienced dating violence within the past 12 months, and 14-32% had been sexually assaulted. To combat these issues, an action plan revolving around peer encouragement and understanding has been created. This plan will focus on helping youth understand the issues faced by their LGBT peers from a young age, to create more liberal and open-minded youth as they grow up. Through this, all youth will begin to accept the differences and similarities between themselves and their LGBT peers, and will promote it and discourage discrimination within their own lives. One of the key segments of this action plan relies on the psychological theory of Connectivism, how people can learn and share across the Internet (Siemens, 2005). We hope that by teaching segments of youth about the importance of discouraging bullying and discrimination, that this will translate into their online worlds as well.

Key Theory

Another key theory is the pedagogical approach of Multiliteracies, or making learning more inclusive of people’s different cultural backgrounds, sexual orientation, or racial differences (The New London Group, 1996). The use of this psychological learning theory will help teachers to better prepare their students for successful and accepting lives in the real world. The final psychological theory to be utilized is Social Learning Theory, or the theory that individuals learn through watching others, imitating them, and modeling those behaviours (Bandura, 1977). If we demonstrate to our youth that we accept and understand our LGBT peers, then they are more likely to do the same, and vice versa. This action plan aligns with the ethical guidelines of Education and Training that psychologists must meet when teaching or designing programs. This means that the action plan is designed to ensure the appropriate knowledge and experiences are drawn from (Standard 7.01), that the course syllabi are accurate (Standard 7.03), and that students will not have to disclose any personal details in their learning experiences (Standard 7.04). Through utilizing this plan and the accompanied theories, we can stop the issue of the high LGBT suicide rate by going to the root of the problem: bullying and discrimination. In making these behaviours unacceptable early on, this will translate to a greater variety of people becoming LGBT allies, and stopping others from committing discriminating behaviours. In turn, this will help decrease the LGBT suicide rate in youth, and help them become more well-adjusted and accomplished individuals.

 

References

Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. New York: General Press.

CDC. (2017, March 9). LGBT Youth. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: https://www.cdc.gov/lgbthealth/youth.htm

Haas, A. P., Eliason, M., Mays, V. M., Mathy, R. M., & D’Augelli, A. R. (2011, January 4). Suicide and Suicide Risk in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Populations: Review and Recommendations. Retrieved from NCBI: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3662085/

OK.Gov. (2014). Suicide in America. Retrieved from OK.Gov: https://www.ok.gov/odmhsas/documents/suicide%20infographic.pdf

Rodriguez, L., & Gatlin, D. (2014, July 21). New Study: LGBT Youth More Likely than Heterosexual Youth to Attempt Suicide – See more at: https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/press/press-releases/21-july-2014/#sthash.G65NQHi5.dpuf. Retrieved from The Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law: https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/press/press-releases/21-july-2014/

Siemens, G. (2005). Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 3-10. Retrieved from Learning Theories: https://www.learning-theories.com/connectivism-siemens-downes.html

The New London Group. (1996). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social futures. Harvard educational review, 60-93.

Youth.Gov. (2017). Behavioral Health. Retrieved from Youth.Gov: http://youth.gov/youth-topics/lgbtq-youth/health-depression-and-suicide