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The Corporate Addiction to Formal Education: Gaining Competitive Advantage by Creating a Culture of Knowledge Diversity

The Corporate Addiction to Formal Education: Gaining Competitive Advantage by Creating a Culture of Knowledge Diversity

The established educational criteria for those in management and entry level positions now relies on the completion of a degree to the detriment of competitive advantage.  It is essential for employers to evaluate the positions they need filled and the employee they are hiring because a college degree is not synonymous with skill, ability, or productivity. Firms have grown to associate knowledge with educational attainment in the form of a college degree.  Over the past three decades there has been a sharp rise in the number of people aged 25 and over who are entering the job market with a Bachelor’s degree.  Moreover, many entry level employment opportunities now require a Bachelor’s degree which suggests that knowledge is not associated with hands on experience or the philosophy of mind obtained through real life experience.  There is an association with educational attainment and earning potential but the demand for formal education is reducing innovation garnered through a creative thought process which hampers a company’s competitive advantage in the long run.  The essay writer impact of knowledge diversity within a business culture is immeasurable, needs to be properly defined, and include qualifications based upon cognitive ability rather than a piece of paper.

Keywords: Knowledge diversity, educational attainment, competitive advantage

                                                                     Table of Contents

Abstract 2

Introduction. 4

Statement of the Problem.. 6

Purpose Statement 7

Research Questions. 9

Literature Review.. 10

Outline. 10

History of Formal Education for Positions of Leadership. 10

Discussion of Historical Figures. 11

Historical degree requirements for managerial positions and higher 12

The Process of Knowledge Transfer 12

Knowledge Diversity and Innovation. 13

The Importance of Knowledge Diversity in Improving the Competitive Advantage of the Organization. 15

I.       Knowledge diversity as a means of enhancing an organization’s core competency. 15

II.     Knowledge sharing as a means of enhancing a firm’s competitive advantage. 16

III.         Knowledge management as a means of improving competitive advantage. 17

Research Methodology. 19

Research Approach. 20

Study Population and Sampling Procedure. 20

Conclusion. 22

References. 23

Appendix. 26


The current educational needs of those entering positions of management and leadership are astronomical. The need for a formal education is quickly outpacing the compensation to make an advanced degree make sense to obtain and at the same time it is relatively unknown how much benefit companies receive to do all this formal education. Twenty years ago, some experts believe “Hemingway would be “unqualified” to teach writing, and Einsteinwould be “unqualified” to teach science.” (Sowell, p. 1, para. 4, 1996). An interesting thing to note is that the standards of education and the demand for advanced degrees has only worsened but this has not necessarily resulted in an increase in efficiently, revenue, or job creation (Narayanan, Swaminathan, & Talluri, 2014).

Knowledge diversity among members of managerial teams reflects the contrasting experience, skills, qualities, and character traits that are necessary to succeed in business but can’t be learned in a classroom. This information will be used to develop programs that are conducive to a cultural climate that promotes a diversity of knowledge among those in positions of leadership. This study will set out to explore the history of formal education requirements for those in management and leadership positions, if the pay reflects the trend in educational requirements, and examine what skills or qualities those in the past who have succeeded brought to the corporate table.

Researchers have been exploring the topic of top management composition in terms of knowledge diversity and organizational ambidexterity recently. In an article titled The Impact of the Top Management Team’s Knowledge Diversity on Organizational Ambidexterity authors found that knowledge diversity was essential among members of management in that “Top management teams (TMTs) have a limited field of vision and perception based on the TMT members’ cognitive base and (demographic) background characteristics, and that in decision making, managers will selectively focus their attention on particular stimuli and pieces of information, based on their experiences, preferences, and other biases (Hambrick & Mason, 1984) and (Buyl, Boone, & Matthyssens, p. 10, para. 1, 2012). The article goes on to explain that for companies to succeed in the long run they need to be able to break out of their own perceptions and experiences and part of the problem with this dilemma is that there is a lack of knowledge diversity among executives and those in managerial positions.

                                                     Statement of the Problem

There is a problem with the requirement of advanced degrees for jobs in which an advanced degree should never be required. The number of those entering the workforce with degrees is not necessarily adding to the quality of life of those individuals or the national economy (Narayanan, Swaminathan, & Talluri, 2014). The push to require college educations in many positions is decreasing the value of a formal education because those with advanced degrees are flooding the job markets country wide. According to Narayanan, Swaminathan, and Talluri (2014), this is leading to stagnation in increased wages, an unprecedented increase in unpaid student debt, and is a situation that should be closely examined by those in leadership positions to make sound hiring decisions.

The skills debate after the 2008 economic collapse left scholars analyzing the job market while assuming the avenue to cultivating human capital was through a formal education but many failed to consider the plethora of skills that a formal education simply can’t provide. Moreover, American’s have become addicted to education in the sense that many will insist on obtaining a formal degree even if the costs associated with the degree do not equate to an increase in pay. This is typically the result of location and job availability in that location. There is a failure on the part of the educational system as well as the government to inform the public which educational paths will be the best for employment where they are located.

                                                                Purpose Statement

The purpose of this research is to explore the need for knowledge diversity in employees and people in executive positions in companies to help in maintaining a competitive advantage over their competitors. It is not enough to simply form teams of employees that are knowledgeable on a certain organizational aspect. It needs to go beyond entry level and lower management levels if a company and the local community is going to gain real value from knowledgeable employees. One expert suggested that employers and those in positions of leadership need to limit their reliance on quantitative data start “”Engaging employers upfront, leveraging regional partnerships, emphasizing apprenticeships, making sure we break down and better understand the barriers to local employment, these are all really important efforts.” (Valet, p.1, para. 14, 2016). In terms of skill gaps and unemployment education, and training leaders found in government and in the corporate world should be working together to ensure they are meeting the needs of the communities they are in. This needs to start with an employer who is in tune with the company culture and the diversity of knowledge found among employees.


It is becoming essential for multinational corporations to evaluate their missions, values, and goals while simultaneously accepting new definitions for qualified candidates. Diversity is not a one size fits all idea or concept. Diversity is as fluidic as water and the ideologies, beliefs, and values will change drastically from country to country. Which is why researchers are noticing that ‘In addition to race, ethnicity, and gender (core elements of diversityin the United States), other factors such as age, socioeconomic status, educational background, and religion may play a role in different countries that are equally if not more critical.” (Dervin, 2013 p.1, para. 7, 2013). Research is needed to bring the idea that workplace diversity and knowledge sharing is imperative for business sustainability.

Moreover, diversity should also include the types of experience employees and managers possess and offer inclusion for expertise that doesn’t show up in the form of an advanced degree but a real work experience. Society is conditioned to believe that qualified management positions should always go to people with advanced degrees but don’t consider that sometimes a candidate with absolutely no college education might be more qualified than an overly educated candidate. Recent research suggests that “the greater breadth of knowledge among unit members increases their ability to relate to multiple domains and may impact search and integration efforts for knowledge within the organizational unit” (Narayanan, Swaminathan & Talluri, P. 1333, para. 4, 2014). This article then went on to suggest that it is unproductive when all members in a unit share the same knowledge because it forces them to go look for knowledge to fill those information gaps. This was found to be true even on teams that performed the same tasks. For this reason alone, employers need a real profile for the hiring of employees for advanced management positions based upon diversity in knowledge, culture, and ethnicity.

This study will analyze the traits of highly successful people from diverse educational, cultural, and ethnic backgrounds without an advanced degree to find out what qualities they possessed to help them overcome adversity. A review of past literature will be done to gather information on corporate ideologies regarding hiring and advancement practices. Knowledge diversity, the benefits for knowledge diversity, and the types of knowledge diversity will be exploited. The information obtained in the literature review will then be used to create a conceptual framework for qualitative information collection conducted over the phone or face to face interviews with members of management teams across multiple industries.

                                                           Research Questions

The main question this research will hope to answer is the value society places on formal education beyond a primary education. Given the state of the global educational systems it could be possible that we are hiring the best candidates for positions simply because they hold a higher degree. A degree no longer suggests that a person is qualified for a position.

  1. What qualities would suggest a person without a college degree would be a good candidate for an educationally diverse workplace?
  2. What kinds of knowledge-sharing and knowledge development programs are being implemented by corporations and how are these programs improving or not improving business?
  3. Under what circumstances would it be in a corporation’s best interest to hire someone with experience on aspects of a job rather than a person who has gained experience through knowledge materials such as books?

                                                           Literature Review


  1. History of Formal Education for Positions of Leadership (Volo & Volo, 2006).
  2. Discussion of Historical Figures
  3. Historical Degree Requirements for Managerial Positions and Higher
  4. The Process of Knowledge Transfer
  5. Knowledge Diversity and Innovation
  6. The Importance of Knowledge Diversity in Improving the Competitive Advantage of an Organization

History of Formal Education for Positions of Leadership

Over the past years, formal education has been considered in the selection and appointment of people to leadership positions. The trend has continued as most organizations consider certain educational requirements when hiring their employees and with time, some employees continue with their education, making them better placed to get the leadership positions. According to Volo and Volo (2006), the 1700s were characterized by a situation whereby education was neither a field of study nor a professional discipline. Early towns in the US during this period became power structures such as the clergy and the local government. They then hired teachers and judged them on the way they taught. The clergy were tasked with this duty because they were considered to be more educated and could guide religious instructions in the schools. In most cases, the people who were chosen by the clergy were educated. According to Styan (1990), the period was also characterized by the appointment of supervisors who monitored teachers. The supervisors were teachers who had been chosen and were found to be exemplary in their job hence were promoted. Most of them were well educated and could know when a teacher was not performing his or her role accordingly. It is evident from these sources that in the past, formal education was key in the selection or appointment of leadership positions. Teachers during the 1700s were selected based on their education (Volo & Volo, 2006). Those who were better educated got better positions such as supervisors and the clergy.

Discussion of Historical Figures

Many historical figures have illustrated that an advanced degree is not needing to be successful. Some dropped out of high school, some went to college and then dropped out but the bottom line is that they made it to the top and will go down in history for their accomplishments. There is a long list of recognizable names such as Steve Jobs the man who invented the first computer, Astronaut John Glenn, the infamous billionaire John D. Rockefeller, and finally is Albert Einstein was said to have dropped out of high school at the age of 15 and then went on to teach himself mathematics since he failed to gain entrance to University the first year he applied. Albert Einstein is one of the biggest geniuses known to humans but there are qualities other than a formal education that ended up helping him winning a noble prize. While analyzing Einstein’s life it becomes apparent that he was so successful because of his ability to persist in the face of adversity. Besides Einstein’s educational setbacks he also had some arguable severe personality setbacks that would have eliminated him from many of today’s jobs.

Expert in autism spectrum disorders as well as the creator of an empathy spectrum, Simon Baron-Cohen suspects that Albert Einstein most likely had Asperger syndrome which is on the autism spectrum. He explained in a publication that Einstein was preferred to be alone in his younger years, was horrible at instructing others, and was clueless when it came to small-talk with others. (Miur, para. 4, 2003). These are essential skills in the business world and Einstein not only lacked them, he even lacked a formal education. With this said, he still had qualities that ended up changing the world and these are qualities that employers should focus on developing in their employees or recruit for during their hiring processes.

Historical degree requirements for managerial positions and higher

According to Styan (1990), the past years were characterized by degree requirements for people in managerial positions or higher. However, this was not the case for lower positions where people were employed according to their ability to perform the jobs and previous work experience. It changed later as degree requirements started applying for even individuals in lower positions. According to Rampell (2014), most organizations in the world today require a degree even in positions that never required college or university education. Unlike old times when degrees were required for managerial positions only, degrees have become a norm in the society today as most jobs require degree holders. Moreover, most organizations today require that the people in leadership positions have Master’s degree or above as the Bachelor’s degree requirement has shifted to individuals in lower positions. According to Styan (1990), learned people are considered to have more knowledge on handling of different aspects in an organization. Therefore, these degree requirements have forced people aspiring to be future managers to continue with their quest for education to be better placed than their fellows when opportunities arise.  It means that the focus on work skills as a consideration during recruitment has shifted to college degree and higher. While a person may have the required skills to perform a given task, he or she likely to miss the opportunity when another individual who is more learned is his or her competitor (Styan, 1990). It shows the way the society today values college degree and it has continued to be a requirement for managerial and leadership positions in most organizations today.

The Process of Knowledge Transfer

The process of knowledge transfer can be examined on the level of public communication within areas of stocks, bonds, or other commodities or within a single organization. Either way the idea is essentially the same in that diversity of knowledge enhances work flow. As explained by researchers Marcus Berliant and Masahisa Fujita “our analysis demonstrates that when the speed of public knowledge transmission is not too high, from the largest set of initial conditions the knowledge production system eventually reaches the most productive state.” (Berliant & Fujita, p. 858, para. 1, 2011).  This essentially means that all things should be done in moderation including knowledge sharing. This research found that the most conducive environment for knowledge diversity was among individuals within the same groups rather than knowledge being shared from group to group.

Moreover, research suggests that there is a very common dynamic to help explain why group to group communication could be limited. Because one’s role within the organization and their social status those who feel they are the least significant are less likely to ask questions or answer questions. On the other hand, those who are more important tend to ask and answer more questions than average. The knowledge sharing and knowledge diversity barrier is thus created “with the emergence of a core–periphery network structure, peripheral individuals are discouraged from asking questions as their expectation of receiving a solution to their question is very low. “(Lu, Singh & Sun, p. 1, para. 1, 2017). The following research aims to understand the dynamics of how the core-periphery network structure can be broken down with knowledge diversity training among management teams to increase productivity within organizations.

Knowledge Diversity and Innovation

Knowledge diversity is one of the major ingredients of innovation in organizations. According to Krome (2014), the effect of diversity on organizational performance is considered as one of the questions in organization studies that has attracted significant attention. Most studies have found that knowledge diversity has the potential to increase an organization’s innovative potential as it helps in the maintenance of a broad set of alternative paths to various solutions.

According to Tenkasi and Boland (1996), knowledge diversity promotes knowledge transfer between different employees in technologically diverse firms and this is important in that it increases the impact of technological inventions in such firms. They state that the level of knowledge diversity in a firm is important in that little diversity does not support recombination and this makes it ideal for economies of scale. According to Aleman (2012), there is a curvilinear relationship between innovative performance and knowledge diversity. He states that since knowledge diversity promotes technological innovation, an organization’s technological areas can be improved as different ideas will be exchanged between the employees due to their diversity in knowledge. Tenkasi and Boland (1996) argue that firms with individuals who share similar knowledge bases can barely exchange ideologies while those with employees with knowledge diversity engage in the transfer of knowledge hence the promotion of innovation. According to them, another important element of diversity is cultural diversity. They state that just as knowledge diversity, it impacts innovation. On a global scale, it has a significant influence on the economic performance of an organization. Aleman (2012), states that a mixture of knowledge diversity and culture diversity can propel an organization forward economically and technologically. He argues that teams with knowledge diversity and cultural diversity have the capability to come up with innovative ideas and can also use information accordingly as the collaboration levels of such individuals is strengthened. Aleman (2012) used the figure below to express how the mixture of cultural diversity and knowledge diversity can help an organization to progress.

Knowledge diversity
Cultural diversity

According to Krome (2014), the emergence of a global economy has been characterized by an increase in knowledge intensive firms that, in turn, require workers with knowledge diversity to help in the development of unique knowledge competences. Moreover, such workers can collaborate to create new ideas that can be applied by the firms to enhance their performance. Krome (2014) states that for IT (Information Technology) plays a vital role in knowledge intensive firms and this requires that such firms must have employees with knowledge diversity for their operations to be successful. According to him, knowledge diversity promotes the integration of ideas as different employees share information on various aspects that can benefit an organization.

Tenkasi and Boland (1996), state that the demand for new products and the changes in market expectations have led to the replacement of labor intensive firms by knowledge intensive ones. The firms, therefore, have been forced to have knowledgeable workforce to help in addressing these issues. Knowledgeable workforce helps in the creation of new ideologies that are applied in the production of new goods. According to Tenkasi and Boland (1996), a firm with employees with diverse knowledge can come up with new products to address the increasing demand by customers. Moreover, an organization that has employees with knowledge diversity has a wide knowledge base as these employees can interact to come up with an ideal innovative idea. Also, the employees will learn from each other due to their knowledge diversity and this can yield new insights on a problem that a given organization might be facing.

The Importance of Knowledge Diversity in Improving the Competitive Advantage of the Organization

I.                Knowledge diversity as a means of enhancing an organization’s core competency

Core competency in an organization is instrumental because it provides direct benefits to the firm. Knowledge diversity is instrumental in enhancing an organization core competency.  Narayanan, Swaminathan, and Talluri (2013) examine knowledge diversity under two attributes, interpersonal and intrapersonal diversity. Interpersonal diversity refers to the degree between member differences of knowledge elements in an organization. Differences in knowledge elements are essential because it enhances the innovation of information found within the given institution. Furthermore, it can aid in problem solving. Low interpersonal diversity can limit the exchange of information among members of an organization because they tend to have similar knowledge elements. However, high interpersonal diversity enhances knowledge flow in an organization because members have diverse knowledge elements that do not overlap. This enhances problem solving within the firm.

Intrapersonal diversity, on the other hand, refers to the degree of knowledge generality in an organization unit member. A member with great generality has the capability to store more information patterns in his or her memory hence has more cognitive abilities (Narayanan, Swaminathan & Talluri, 2013). Low intrapersonal diversity means that members are specialized in their experiences. Therefore, it becomes easier for unit members to identify the different skills of every unit member. This ability reduces time that may be wasted in searching for relevant knowledge that is necessary in problem solving.

II.             Knowledge sharing as a means of enhancing a firm’s competitive advantage

Abdul-Jalal, Toulson and Tweed (2013) argue that successful knowledge sharing is instrumental because it results to shared intellectual capital. Successful knowledge sharing is founded on employees’ capability. Knowledge in an organization is generated through the creation and application of the human capital. Therefore, the specific skills, roles, and cognitive abilities of employees play a significant role in knowledge sharing. For an organization to gain a competitive advantage through knowledge sharing, knowledge has to be culturally and socially embedded in their practices and behaviors. This facilitates the passing of knowledge to other employees for value appropriation. Minbaeva, Makela, and Rabbiosi (2010) suggest that motivation, ability, and opportunity as important factors that enhance the flow of knowledge within an organization.

The ability to share knowledge refers to the extent to which senders and receivers share similarities of the knowledge basis. Therefore, the ability to share signifies the capability of understanding and organizing knowledge through formal and informal workplace relationships (Cummings & Teng, 2003). Successful knowledge sharing requires the development of shared language. A shared language facilitates the identification, combination, and interpretation of information. Sharing knowledge successfully requires the right group formations. The group formations should pay consideration to cooperative behavior and how well employees get along with each other. Previous researches place much emphasis on the importance of human resource management as a facilitator for knowledge sharing. The practices should focus on frequent and intense social exchange that enhance the development of new workplace relationships that can facilitate knowledge sharing because knowledge represents the foundation of a company’s competitive strategy.

III.           Knowledge management as a means of improving competitive advantage

In the recent years, emphasis of knowledge as a means of improving competitive advantage in an organization has been growing. The emphasis is attributed to the emergence of knowledge-based economies that place value on effective knowledge management as a successful tool for improving an organization’s competitive advantage (Rahimli, 2012).  Knowledge management is crucial because of its capability to deliver strategic results relating to profitability, enhancing organization capacity, and enhancing the organization competitive advantage. Rahimli (2012) suggests that Knowledge management is a necessary tool to enhance organizational survival and ensure the organization retains its competitive strength. Many organizations use knowledge management to design their strategy, the organizational structure, and processes. The processes play a central role in ensuring the organization retains its capability, develops, and utilizes the capabilities of their employees.

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Knowledge management comprises of four components which should be managed effectively to enhance an organization’s competitive advantage. The components are knowledge, processes, people, and technology. Knowledge is essential in the management process because it is the foundation of the whole process. Knowledge is a body of information that allow people to function intelligently. The acquisition of knowledge is a complex cognitive process that involves a lot of learning, communication, reasoning, association, and perception (Rahimli, 2012). As a component of knowledge management in organizations, knowledge is embedded in organizational processes, practices, routines, norms, and culture. An additional component of knowledge in an organization is people. People are the sources and consumers of knowledge and hence knowledge management revolves around this component. Processes determine how work is conducted within the organization. Therefore, it is critical to understand the work processes. Additionally, mapping these processes is necessary because it simplifies the description of inputs, outputs, personnel, resources, and the work being done. An additional component that is critical in knowledge management is technology. Advances in technology facilitate the whole process of knowledge management and enhances the cooperation among diverse workforce.

Various researchers have emphasized on the value of knowledge management in an organization. Chen and Liang (2016) argue that knowledge management is fundamental in improving the performance of an organization. They attribute this to factors such as knowledge acquisition, creation, and transfer which improve the processes of the organization and in turn lead to improved performance. Desouza and Paquette (2011) attribute the need for knowledge management to organization survival and competitive differentiation. The author argues that organizations at this era compete on the basis of knowledge. This is attributed to the competition in the market place because of a rise in innovation. Knowledge management drives competitive advantage because many organizations are required to enhance their innovation capacity. Innovation is a tool for differentiation from competitors and attracting customers.

Research Methodology

The research needed to assess this topic will be qualitative in nature due to the depth of questions and differences in human perceptions that have been obtained in the face to face interviews. A case by case review of the interview and information supplied on the survey will be done to identify key perceptions held by individuals and society in the context of beliefs on what qualities can make a person successful.

To fully understand the values, beliefs, and attitudes of professionals an in-person interview will be used to explore the relationship between beliefs. surrounding educational levels and the pattern throughout time for organizations to hire individuals for certain positions requiring a college degree. Moreover, “It is argued that time and place (context) do make a difference to the structure and process of an individual firm’s internationalization, that past structures and processes do influence outcomes and that proper acknowledgement of context is vital in understanding and theorizing internationalization.” (Buckly, p. 881, para. 4, 2016). In short, when developing a possible knowledge diversity and knowledge sharing program and implementing this training into hiring practice and the corporate culture it is important to under the cultural history of that corporation in its full context. To fully understand the reasoning behind the need for diversity of knowledge being imperative to gaining a competitive market advantage over competition then it is necessary to understand the historical implications of societies over reliance on a formal education.

Once the ideologies and thought process of hiring practices in the historical context is analyzed by looking at the individual policies regarding the structure of teams and the characteristics of those hired for that position then it will be possible to consider the qualitative data that has been gathered by agencies and researchers, particularly of the past decade. All this data together should help to develop a workable and sustainable knowledge diversity policy and knowledge sharing program that is company centric. This research should show that not only is a diversity in thought necessary but this concept ties closely in with the need for cultural and ethnic diversity within a multinational corporation. The idea is that if one wishes to remain competitive then it is essential to understand the global market and on a more personal level the individual consumer.

Further, it is essential to gather data and information from numerous sources to ensure the validity of information being utilized to formulate opinions. As noted in the Management International Review (MIR), it is important when doing an international analysis to watch for triangulation and loss of information through translation. Essentially, triangulation is “utilized in international business journals by the requirement that both elements of a dyadic relationship are needed to cross check each other” (Buckly, p. 882, para. 5, 2016). To formulate the most accurate conclusions all aspects of the historical research should be included as well as double and triple checked for accuracy.

Research Approach

The study will employ qualitative data collection. It will include an in-person interview with an establishment owner or member of a management team. The interview will include open ended questions to the subjects.

Next, there will be an in-depth review of the policies and procedures of each interviewed individual to analyze their hiring practices and gain a better understanding of the composition of employee knowledge diversity within that company. This information will then be compared to the historical patterns related to employee turnover compared with investment in human capital.

Study Population and Sampling Procedure

The study population of the online survey will include online participants in multiple career fields from Philadelphia. Before the survey, the research team will approach different people from Philadelphia and ask them if they are willing to participate. Moreover, after accepting the invitation, they will be asked to provide information on their career fields and their leadership positions if any. They will be leaders from corporations, healthcare agencies, marketing agencies, and the manufacturing industry. The survey will be shared with topic specific groups of 25,000 members of above on social media platforms such as Facebook and LinkedIn. The population and sampling procedure of the second analysis will be a smaller population comprised of business owners and managers who are available for either face to face or phone interviews. They will be contacted and asked if they are willing to participate either through phone interviews or face to face.


The goal of this case study is to develop a hiring process as well as in house training that will include an appreciative inquiry with employees to encourage knowledge sharing and diversity. The development of an appreciative inquiry as well as organizational team structures that are inclusive of knowledge diversity should increase production. For this to happen the cultural climate within the workplace needs to be inclusive and appreciative of knowledge diversity to encourage knowledge sharing among employees and those in management.


Abdul-Jalal, H., Toulson, P., & Tweed, D. (2013). Knowledge Sharing Success for Sustaining Organizational Competitive Advantage. Procedia Economics and Finance, 7, 150-157.

Aleman, E. (2012). Linking Cultural Diversity and Innovation: A Literature Review. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Berliant, M., & Fujitat, M. (2011). The Dynamics of Knowledge Diversity and Economic Growth. Southern Economic Journal, 77(4), 856-884.

Buckley, P. (2016). Historical Research Approaches to the Analysis of Internationalization. Management International Review (MIR), 56(6), 879-900. doi:10.1007/s11575-016-0300-0

Buyl, T., Boone, C., & Matthyssens, P. (2012). The Impact of the Top Management Team’s Knowledge Diversity on Organizational Ambidexterity. International Studies of Management & Organization, 42(4), 8-26.

Chen, D., & Liang, T. (2016). Knowledge diversity and firm performance: an ecological view. Journal of Knowledge Management, 20(4), 671-686.

Cummings, J.L., & Teng, B.S. (2003). Transferring R&D knowledge: the key factors affecting knowledge transfer success. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 20 (1-2), 39-68.

Dervin, M. (2013). The Competitive Advantage of Diverse Perspectives. T+D, 67(8), 44.

Desouza, K. C., & Paquette, S. (2011). Knowledge management: An Introduction. New York: NY: Neal-Schuman Publishers, Inc.

Krome, M. (2014). Knowledge Transformation: A Case for Workforce Diversity. Journal of Diversity Management (JDM), 9(2), 103.

Lu, Y., Singh, P. V., & Sun, B. (2017). Is a Core-Periphery Network Good for Knowledge Sharing? a structural model of endogenous network formation on a crowdsourced customer support forum. MIS Quarterly, 41(2), 607-A5.

Minbaeva, D.B., Makela, K., & Rabbiosi, L. (2010) Explaining intra-organisational knowledge transfer at the individual level. Unpublished manuscript.

Morris, L. (2017). 11 Fascinating Facts You Never Knew About Einstein. Retrieved from about-einstein.aspx

Muir, H. (2003). Did Einstein and Newton have autism? New Scientist, 178(2393), 10.

Narayanan, S., Swaminathan, J. M., & Talluri, S. (2014). Knowledge Diversity, Turnover, and Organizational-Unit Productivity: An Empirical Analysis in a Knowledge-Intensive Context. Production & Operations Management, 23(8), 1332-1351. doi:10.1111/poms.12039

Rahimli, A. (2012). Knowledge Management and Competitive Advantage. Information and Knowledge Management, 2 (7), 37-43.

Rampell, C. (2014). The college degree has become the new high school degree. Washington Post. Retrieved 29 March 2018, from

Styan, D. (1990). Better Managers: Better Management. Management in Education, 4(2), 28-33.

Tenkasi, R., & Boland, R. (1996). Exploring knowledge diversity in knowledge intensive firms: a new role for information systems. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 9(1), 79-91.

Valet, V. (2016). How the Commerce Department Is Fighting to Close the Skills Gap. Forbes.Com, 1.

Volo, J. M., & Volo, D. D. (2006). Family life in 17th- and 18th-century America. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.


Tabulation of Literature Review

History Title/author Framework Method/methodology Results
Employment Policy How the Commerce Department is Fighting to Close the Skills Gap Valet, V. (2016) Analysis of economic crisis and employment skill gap Literature review of government policies and employer needs Employers and politicians were out of touch with the labor market and local economies
Peer reviewed analysis The Impact of the Top Management Team’s Knowledge Diversity on Organizational Ambidexterity. Buyl, Boone, Matthyssens. (2012). Analysis of knowledge diversity among corporate managerial teams Conceptual framework of managerial diversity development There is a need for diversity of knowledge
Peer reviewed Knowledge   Empirical Analysis Found that
Analysis Diversity, Turnover,   Knowledge
  and Organizational-   diversity and
  Unit Productivity.   sharing is
  Narayanan, S.,   necessary. When
  Swaminathan, J. M.,   employees need
  & Talluri, S. (2014).   to search for
      knowledge then
      this impedes
Theories and Would Einstein be Analysis of Discussion Einstein would
Concepts qualified to teach Educational   not be qualified
  high school science? requirements to   to be a high
  Sowell, T. (1996). teach as well as   school teacher
    an increase in   back in 1996 due
    Standardized   to an over
    Academic   reliance on a
    Knowledge   degree for
        teachers instead
        of knowledge
        from life
Character traits Did Einstein and Examination of Discussion Examination of
  Newton have traits presented   characteristics of
  autism? New by historical   Newton and
  Scientist, 178(2393), Figures   Einstein.
  10. Muir, H. (2003).      
Knowledge The Dynamics of Analysis of Standalone model R Analysis of the
Sharing Knowledge Knowledge & D and economic importance of
  Diversity and sharing among growth model Knowledge
  Economic groups of people   sharing for
  Growth. Southern Economic Journal, 77(4), 856- 884. Berliant, M., & Fujitat, M. (2011). compared to groups of individuals   economic growth
Knowledge Lu, Y., Singh, P. V., Core peripherals Structural model Knowledge
Sharing & Sun, B. (2017). Is     sharing among
conceptual model a Core-Periphery     members of
and framework Network Good for     different levels of
  Knowledge     authorities and
  Sharing? a structural     social status
  model of      
  endogenous network      
  formation on a      
  customer support      

Interview Questions

  1. What is your educational background?
    1. What skills have you learned outside of a formal educational setting that you wish you would have learned while in school?
      1. What do you believe are the elements of a knowledge diversity?
      1. What are some of the qualities of your most productive employees?
      1. What is the educational background of your most productive team of employees?
      1. What kind of advanced training opportunities do you offer to your employees?
      1. What is the key element that led to the success of your company?
      1. How are the members of the executive team different in terms of life experience?
      1. Where are the members of the executive team from?
      1. What motivated the members of the executive team to continue pursuing the creation of this business in the beginning?
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By Hanna Robinson

Hanna has won numerous writing awards. She specializes in academic writing, copywriting, business plans and resumes. After graduating from the Comosun College's journalism program, she went on to work at community newspapers throughout Atlantic Canada, before embarking on her freelancing journey.

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