Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a challenge that affects different individuals in life. The essay writer condition can be diagnosed during the early stages of a person’s life, and if not correctly managed, it can negatively affect the successful transition of an individual from one stage in life to the other. ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a wide range of social deficits and repetitive patterns of a given behavior (Lindor et al., 2016). Most children suffering from this disorder often manifest symptoms ranging from poor social-emotional reciprocity and difficulty developing and maintaining positive social relationships with peers (Lindor et al., 2016). Apart from the outlined factors, the existing research indicates that most individuals with ASD will also exhibit a wide range of clinically significant internalizing and externalizing challenges, including depression, somatization, intentions for self-harm, and impulsivity. Although different professionals, including Board Certified Behavior Analysts, have come out to assist these individuals, the interventions that are provided need to be specifically tailored to meet every person’s individual needs (Lindor et al., 2016). Therefore, deeper insights must be provided concerning some effective strategies that can be adapted to help children with ASD freely interact with their peers and teachers in school. Therefore, this paper seeks to expound on the presented case while using the BCBA code of ethics to provide evidence-based support.
Overview of the Presented Case Study.
Students with ASD face numerous challenges when predisposed to a traditional class setting or when they are exposed to a new environment. The scenario presented involves a 14-year-old student with ASD who has just enrolled in a new ACE Special Education School. Mark’s mother is concerned with Mark’s transition to the new school and has sought permission that would allow Mark to get the services of his Board Certified Behavior Analyst from home (BCBA). Despite Mark receiving services from his BCBA, he is still facing challenges in effectively socializing with his peers at school. As a result, he exhibits problems such as pinching, scratching staff, and hitting other students. Although the mother is unwilling to open up about her son’s behavior, different accommodations and interventions must be incorporated to help Mark transition to his new school effectively.
Before any BCBA embarks on managing any patient’s condition, they must focus on upholding all the stipulated ethics required in their profession (Bailey & Burch, 2016). The code of ethics constitutes different behavioral topics that are relevant to behavior analysts. As a result, before handling any patient’s case, they must maintain high standards of behavior and are accountable to their clients (Bailey & Burch, 2016). As a result, any procedure that is conducted should be in the best interest of these clients.
When handling a client’s case, behavior analysts may be faced with a wide range of ethical behaviors and dilemmas. However, behavior analysts should ensure that they are aware of their ethical obligations in every situation, including those involving multidisciplinary teams. They should guarantee high confidentiality leaves and use current research to manage a given client’s case. Incorporating these strategies will lead to positive outcomes among the affected individuals.
BCBA works with different families, children, and teachers to ensure that affected children develop the necessary skills that can enable them to interact with their friends and staff at school effectively. ASD is a fast-growing developmental disorder that affects at least one out of 68 children in the United States. With the forecasts indicating that the figures may grow in the future, BCBAs must develop evidence-based interventions measures that will help these children cope in classroom settings. When analyzing Mark’s case, he is at an age where he needs to maintain positive social interactions with his peers at school. However, with his abnormal behaviors, he is on the verge of losing his chance at school when effective behavioral adjustment interventions are not provided. As a result, long-lasting intervention measures need to be identified. Although most students with ASD may exhibit a wide range of social behaviors, their patterns of engaging in these behaviors may vary depending on the environment that they have been predisposed to. Therefore, educators and parents should focus on molding the social-communication aspects since it serves as a building block for these children shedding off their unwanted behaviors.
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Solution Based Summary for Marks Case.
Despite the threats posed by autism to school-going children, most behavior analysts have not yet adopted effective strategies that can be used to alter the behaviors of these children. By the time a child is 14 years, they should develop and maintain positive relationships with their peers. However, if this does not happen, it indicates that these children may not achieve their full academic potential hence the need to make special accommodations that would influence a change in their behaviors. As a result, the following evidence-based strategies can assist teenagers and children such as Mark in developing and maintaining positive social relationships with their friends and teachers.
Most children with ASD do not have the opportunity of creating and maintaining social interactions with their peers and teachers. As a result, they must be taught ways of developing these interactions. Mark is facing problems with his peers and his teachers because he is scratching and pinching them. This may be attributed to the fact that he does not know how to develop and maintain these interactions. As a result, using a script may be an ideal strategy (Barnett, 2018). Script often comprises written scenarios and visual prompts that may facilitate an autistic child to interact effectively with others. Implementing this strategy in the classroom setting may assist these children to start and maintain an interaction. According to Barnett (2018), using scripts among autistic children is beneficial since it prepares them for different conversations and teaches them how to respond in social learning situations.
When developing scripts for adolescents with autism, they must be aligned to meet the individual verbal and interaction needs. When trying to harness an adolescent’s social interaction skills, the scripts should offer statements, responses, and questions that these children should give when they encounter different situations (Barnett, 2018). To ensure that scripts are successful and applicable, the script implementation process should occur just before the student engages in a given social interaction (Barnett, 2018).
Most Behavior analysts are tasked with observing and determining the type of skill that a child needs to work on. In Mark’s case, the main behavior that needs to be worked on includes pinching, hitting fellow students, and scratching his teachers. As a result, the adopted script should solely focus on helping Mark interact well. For instance, when Mark may feel offended by the teacher or fellow student, a script should mainly focus on giving Mark the necessary skills to handle these problems.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.
Cognitive Behavioral therapy is an additional solution that can be used to assist Mark develop positive interactions with their peers and drop the unwanted behavior. The effectiveness of CBT in helping adolescents and adults who have social interaction issues. Since Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is a form of treatment, BCBAs should mainly focus on following the stipulated code of ethics (Kose et al., 2018). Before implementing this therapy, behavior analysts should answer the following questions, what is the right thing to do? And what is the wrong thing to do? By answering these questions, Behavior Analysts will always focus on implementing strategies that will cause no harm to their clients (Kose et al., 2018). Additionally, informed consent must be obtained before providing any form of treatment. When analyzing Bailey and Burch’s text, behavior analysts should follow a distinct process when using any intervention measures. In the case of Cognitive Behavior Therapy, the therapist should start by focusing on the key players involved, the contingency plans, skills needed, the risk that the procedure may have on the client and others, its implementation, and a section to evaluate its effectiveness (Bailey & Burch, 2016).
Mark’s case involves different individuals, including his classmates, teachers, and family. As a result, the adopted therapy should help him relate well with this group without causing any problems. According to the scientific evidence on CBT, self-regulation is one of the effective strategies that can assist learners with ASD in developing independent skills that help them manage their social behaviors at home, school, and the community. Additionally, role-playing is an effective strategy that can help these learners improve their communication and social skills.
ASD is a problem affecting different children. The behavior of these three children is often not well developed in three different areas including communication, social interaction and stereotypical behaviors. On most occasions, children with impaired communication have an impaired ability to interpret information as a result, the difficulties they face in communication is one of the primary factors that makes them exhibit anti-social behaviors against their peers. Over the past decades, there has been an increase in a body of research whose primary aim is to understand accommodations and strategies that can assist Autistic learners in developing positive social interactions. With the growing number of children with autism, effective strategies must be incorporated in class settings. Using scripts and Cognitive Behavioral therapies are among the effective supports that can help these children interact well with their peers and teachers in schools.
Bailey, J., & Burch, M. (2016). Ethics for behavior analysts. Routledge. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/mono/10.4324/9781315669212/ethics-behavior-analysts-jon-bailey-mary-burch
Barnett, J. H. (2018). Three evidence-based strategies that support social skills and play among young children with autism spectrum disorders. Early Childhood Education Journal, 46(6), 665-672.
Kose, L. K., Fox, L., & Storch, E. A. (2018). Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy for individuals with autism spectrum disorders and comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder: A review of the research. Journal of developmental and physical disabilities, 30(1), 69-87.
Lindor, E., Sivaratnam, C., May, T., Stefanac, N., Howells, K., & Rinehart, N. (2019). Problem behavior in autism spectrum disorder: considering core symptom severity and accompanying sleep disturbance. Frontiers in psychiatry, 10, 487.