The paper “Pan-Africanism: A Quest for Liberation and the Pursuit of a United Africa,” by Mark Malisa and Phillippa Nhengeze discusses the place that Pan-Africanism has as a political, educational and cultural movement. This essay writer movement, as the paper describes, had major lasting effects on the continent of Africa and the Diaspora. The article also discusses the evolution, which began with the formerly enslaved Africans and the Americas, up to the colonial borders of the 1884 Berlin Conference. The paper goes on to discuss the independence movements in Africa, and in particular the concept of Pan-Africanism, which allowed nations in Africa to rally against colonial oppressors.
The paper provides context of the people of the continent who the authors call “the victims of racism” (). The paper aims to lay out the various challenges facing these people – all of whom where enslaved Africans. The concept of Pan-Africanism was an idea that helped them see their various commonalities. The people realized they all are from the same continent and they shared the same racial heritage.
The paper describes the context in which they were enslaved. As the paper describes, “The partitioning of Africa at the Berlin Conference (colonialism) created pseudo-nation states out of what was initially seen as an undivided continent” (). The concept of Pan-Africanism gave an ideology that could be used for rallying the Africans abroad and at home, in their fight against colonialism. As the authors point out, the creation of colonial nation-states did not erase any of the ideas pertaining to the concept of a united Africa. When various African nations were able to achieve their independence, they decided to make the effort towards fighting for the independence for the African nations that didn’t have independence. The concept was that if one African nation could not be free, then the entire continent could not be free.
The paper provides the context whereby Pan-Africanism was indeed a concept that resulted in the rallying of nations. For example, the paper discusses how many of the African people communicated their sufferings through stories, and these were shared among different African nations, despite the best efforts of the Europeans to disunite the Africans. But the Africans later became more organized, and even organized conferences as well as congresses to discuss the future of Africa.
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Overall, the paper provides a strong analysis of the events that led up to Pan-Africanism. Then, it provides a solid analysis of Pan-Africanism and what that meant to the people of Africa, as well as how it shaped the nations in the continent to become more independent. The overall paper effectively communicates to its audience the development of Pan-Africanism, and what it meant to the nations of Africa. Particularly, the paper effectively showed how Pan-Africanism worked to reshape the continent.
Malisa, M., and Nhengeze, P. (2018). Pan-Africanism: A quest for liberation and the pursuit of a United Africa. Department of Educational Research and Administration. Retrieved from https://mail.google.com/mail/u/3/#search/24462/KtbxLthRZCqNJWxVrVlMrRFsBRZVJnBLLq?projector=1&messagePartId=0.1
Mother-Centered Matrix – Descriptive Review
In Defining a Mother-Centered Matrix to Analyze the Status of Women, Nah Dove discusses the significance of mother-centeredness in the mission to foster child development. The author is from Africa, and is writing her paper from the eyes of an African person. She talks about the Western states being mostly male-centered and not caring about the well-being of Africa, as well as the continent’s people. She goes as far to say Western states do not care much at all about humanity as a whole. The concept of the Mother-Centered Matrix that was the basis of the development of Kemet takes on the concept that the United States, as well as other modernized societies, are necessarily progressive. Development, as she puts it, highlights the importance of Kemet in its role as a state model that provides modern African people with examples to live and govern that are not done by modern states.
The author discusses Kemet in length, and aims to show how it can provide modern African people with the example of how a nation can govern in a way so that the quality of life of its people does not compare to that of the modern states. Dove supports ancient values, and sees them as a basis to create a future where the mother’s sanctity can dominate as the center for true world development. She challenges Africa to take on that task at the end of the paper, when she says “This is Africa’s task – is she up to it?” ().
One of the major ways modern society, and in particular Africa, could create a mother-centered way of living, is through the teachings of Diop, who Dove says sought to “rectify scholastic attempts to debase Africa and her people. The ‘cradle theory’ was an attempt to show that distinctions among people would be linked to their cultural persuasions” (). It is important to Dove in having a mother-centered focus that culture play a major role, and that it is deeply embedded into the identity. And in order to preserve cultural memory, it is important that the culture is maintained through language, psychology and historical knowledge. But African people have a slew of challenges in this department due to the colonization, neo-colonization and enslavement, which have worked to destroy the cultural memory.
Certainly, Doc is correct that a significant amount of damage has been done by the colonizers, who worked to defeat the psychology of the people, and destroy their customs. From the horrors of enslavement over decades, this has worked to erase the memories that Dove promotes as a core piece in the preservation of cultures. Much of the cultural memory that she endorses can be lost with the destructive nature of colonization.
Ultimately, Dove provide a romantic concept of the way Africa should be, as well as ow the rest of the world should be. Unfortunately, she also shows that the destructive nature of much of life’s challenges can be too much for a nation of continent, in its mission to have a mother-centered culture.
Dove, N. (2002). Defining a mother-centered matrix to analyze the status of women. Journal of Black Studies. Retrieved from https://mail.google.com/mail/u/3/#search/24462/KtbxLthRZCqNJWxVrVlMrRFsBRZVJnBLLq?projector=1&messagePartId=0.1
- Historical background
- Biographical information might also be provided to provide historical contenxt
- Descriptive overview of the reasoning or argument
- Main idea
- Underlying assumptions
- Main premises of the argument
- Give my determination of the key points made by the author to support his of her claims
- At least one paragraph on the key points
- Overall assessment
- Explain what I find to be significant
- Any critical comments
- Helpful to compare what the author said to what other published authors have said about the same subject
- 3 essays at 2 pages each