College Essay Examples

Human Growth and Development

Human Growth and Development

Option 1

  • State the research hypothesis in your own words. Identify the independent and dependent variables, and define all important concepts and terms as they are used in this study.

The research hypothesis for the topic is that the intelligence among breastfeeding babies is higher than that of formula-fed babies. Intelligence is a dependent variable because its relationship with modality and duration of breastfeeding is to be determined. It can change depending on either of the applicable factors. Duration and type of breastfeeding are independent variables because they do not rely on any other factor in the research. However, intelligence is found to be consistent with duration but varying depending on the method of breastfeeding.

  • What evidence do the researchers offer as a test of their hypothesis? Is this evidence empirical (observable)? Is it valid?

The evidence given in the research is the intelligence quotient (IQ).  The research reports that babies who breastfeed record higher IQ compared to their colleagues who depend on the formula approach for breastfeeding. The evidence is not observable since no one can see the reasoning ability of an individual. However, the evidence is valid because it can be tested. It is possible to assess how one can use the information to answer questions. 

  • What explanation do the researchers offer for their findings? Does this explanation make sense based on the evidence?

The researchers explain that the duration of breastfeeding was associated with significantly higher scores on the verbal, performance, and full-scale WAIS IAs, and the difference was observed even after the researchers adjusted for differences in the social class and maternal education of the two groups. The explanation satisfies the evidence given which is an outcome of the dependent variable being tested. 

  •  Given the results of this study, why can’t the researchers draw a causal connection between the type of food and later intelligence? What might be an alternative explanation for the results of this study? What could the researchers do to make a causal connection between the dependent and independent variables?

The researchers cannot draw a casual explanation to the results because other factors and differences between the groups, such as the children’s genetic potential and their parents’ caregiving skills, motivation to nurture, and duration of breastfeeding could also play a role in the IQ factor. However, the researchers can make casual connections between the variables by not recognizing other elements of family, class, duration, and genetic factors. 

  •  Are there any practical implications for this research?

The practical implications of this study are in reasoning and logic use amongst children depending on their breastfeeding duration and method. The results from the study are essential in assessing reasoning and logic applications which are indicators of positive IQ levels. 


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By Hanna Robinson

Hanna has won numerous writing awards. She specializes in academic writing, copywriting, business plans and resumes. After graduating from the Comosun College's journalism program, she went on to work at community newspapers throughout Atlantic Canada, before embarking on her freelancing journey.

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