College Essay Examples

Modernizing and Reinvigorating Human Capital Challenges in the City of Plantation


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Due to its to various aspects that can be applied to society’s corporate sector, public administration is a key field in society. Public administration deals with performance and governance of the corporate sector grounded on practice and theory. Numerous approaches are in support of public administration. The models offer the assumptions and facts, which govern the practice of public administration beside the guiding philosophies to achieve goals by administrative and political systems. This essay discusses the revitalisation and modernization of employees in the City of Plantation using theoretical and practical framework to leader and increase the knowledge to increase effectivenes and efficiency of public services delivery. 

Public Administration Theories And Principles

Public administration’s theoretical frameworks are explore thems with the perspective of the approach to the understanding and study of management of public sector. Theories of public administration are categorized into three distinct groups, namely, classical, modern, and postmodern. The classical approach to public administration is based on Adam Smith’s classical assumption that economic incentives motivate people. Individuals will rationally choose an opportunity that gives them the most significant financial gain. Classical theory has three branches which include Henri Fayol’s administrative principles, Fredrick Taylor’s scientific management, and Max Weber’s bureaucratic organization. Scientific management postulates that management efficiency can be achieved through breaking down complex tasks into subtasks and optimization of subtasks through training of workers on their specific job, thus increasing productivity (Lamidi, 2015). Weber’s bureaucratic organization asserts that bureaucracy through promoting an objective corporation with minimum individual-level contact amongst its employees to attain goals efficiently. By promoting the principle roles of management and administration principles, the administrative theory focuses on management efficiency in achieving organizational objectives. 

Whereas classical theories of public administration dealt with the formal dimension of organizations, modern approaches emphasize on a holistic approach to administration by identifying the importance of the human dimension. Modern theories view an organization as a system and its action, where it explores the coordination of public administrative activities in a system and resulting sub-systems (Lamidi, 2015). The structural-functional approach of the modern model of public organization explains the operations of public administration structures in society and the role of this institution in the society’s continuity over time. Behavioral and contingency approaches in modern theory focused on the importance of the internal and external environment in the productivity of an organization, respectively. While postmodern viewed organizations from both systematic and human viewpoint,  postmodernism promoted that each organization is distinct since they exist in a closed system, each interacting with a specific environment.  

In the administration of the city of plantation, the modern theories of administration, specifically administrative and ecological approach, give the best alternative to overcome human capital challenges in the city. Through identification of the importance of human capital in the efficiency and effectiveness of public administration, modern theories give public administrators a comprehensive perception of their jobs. The promotion of result-oriented perspectives with a focus on clients, outcomes, and outputs, helps understand the importance of developing policies and practices to reinvigorate and modernize the City of Plantation’s human capital to enhance the public sector’s efficiency. 

One of the most theory of public administration is the administrative theory. Ramakrishran & Ravi (2017) states that, the administrative theory is an analogy of public administration theory developed by Stephen Bailey which aims to seek the unification of behavioral and  humanities viewpoints. Administrative theories entails numerous systems. Public administration in the traditional system has subclasses of models, such as philosophical, comparative ,historical,  and legal approaches. The historical system explores particular timespans as basis for public administration. The philosophical model explores the fundamental managerial princples and practices used in administrative approach. The study of various cultural effects on public administration is explored in the comparative model. In comparing different cultural settings, it postulates a common model of public administration. 

The ecological approach explores the concept of public administration based on the association between administration and the environment an organization operates. The environmental model explores the settings that influence the development of public administration. In this system system bureaucracy is perceived as a social establishment that constantly relates with the societal elements such as social, political, and and socio-cultural. The approach highlights that public bureaucracy is highly interdependent with its ecology. Due to the environmental implications on administrative institutions through factors such as social, economic, and cultural scopes, it is critical to consider this concept in public administration. The behavioral approach is another essential concern in the practice of public adminstration. According to Ramakrishran & Ravi, (2017), behavioral approach explains the individuals and groups behaviors in corporations; basing on other fields such as social psychology, psychology, and among others that deals with studying of human behavior. Behavioral systems are essential in approaches of making a viable decisions, since they enlightens the administrative units models they can adopt in modernization and revitalisation of human capital issues associated with development, recruitment, and retaining of employees because behavioral systems identifies traits employs and relates to the management. 


Since it outlines the strategies and plans adopted by companies to achieve their developmental goals, this framework is critical in dealing with the challenges of hiring, creating, and retaining talented workers. This public administration concept concentrates on the goal-oriented and action administrative activities that enable an organization to achieve political, economic, and social goals dependent on the organizational measures adopted. The management emphasizes developmental approaches by creating initiatives and strategies that assist the organization reach its goals.

Evaluating the effectiveness of public programs and outcomes of policy alternatives

Public services are based on the premise that the ‘price’ is not set by the market and that ‘benefit’ is irrelevant as a metric (Shafritz & Hyde, 2017). The services vary according to their missions, and public organizations choose what they want to achieve. They concentrate on evaluating inputs and outputs depending on the organization’s activities and resources. This is a pragmatic method to assess organizational success when the results meet the desires. Economic feasibility is one of the indirect methods to performance measurement. Authorities in the public sector assess the effectiveness of activities based on the program’s goals and how well they accomplish those goals.

The effectiveness and efficiency are two significant criteria to determine program and outcomes’ effectiveness and develop policy alternatives. A measure of an organization’s performance, efficiency, and effectiveness can be used to modernize and reinvigorate the City of Plantation’s human capital. Efficiency involves the measurement of the ratio of inputs to output. Human capital is an essential resource that undertakes activities to transform public policy to the desired outcome (Rossel, 1975). On the other hand, effectiveness refers to how human capital as implementors and input resources can be used to evaluate policy alternatives. Whereas efficiency is concerned with the relation of a given input unit and output unit, effectiveness focuses on the long attainment of organizational goals. Since human capital is essential in policy efficiency and effectiveness, measuring their performance gives public administrators the opportunity to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the human capital involved in policy development and administration. 

Since the method entails performance evaluation, this strategy is feasible for the city of Plantation in attracting, creating, and retaining the best employees. Workforce who perform well are maintained since they utilize their skills to improve the organization’s efficiency. Based on the staff of the individual company, performance dictates organizational performance. Administrators can develop the city’s human resources by monitoring public services and outcomes and training employees to improve their performance.  

Moral Philosophy, Ethical Behavior, And Social Responsibility.

Accountability is one of the reoccurring themes in the domain of public administration. Social responsibility, ethics, and moral philosophy are essential to promoting public accountability (Kinchin, 2007). Public servants are required to conduct themselves in an ethical and moral manner since they are held to a higher standard than other members of society. Ethics determines the character through specifying the guiding principles, while moral philosophy prescribes the proper action of the city of Plantation’s human capital. Through public administration’s code of conduct, moral virtues are set to expose the workforce’s good character in serving the public equitably. Social responsibility is a result of the ethical behavior of the workforce promoted by a professional code of ethics. 

The ethical standards of the company are defined by organizational ethics. Institutional ethics necessitates the implementation of moral values that direct organizational members’ ethical conduct. In political life, administrative ethics applies moral values. The moral tenets define and state human rights and responsibilities, as well as maintaining the welfare of those around them. Ethical and moral criteria take into account differences in terms of class, race, and nationality. People’s decisions are based on their interactions with others and are influenced by their values. Co – existence with other members of society is feasible when individuals acknowledge ethical values. Political influences that have an adverse effect on organizational morality are transcended by organizational principles. Ethics aids moral decisions by guiding moral position centered on the organization’s common attitudes and values. Because officials are thought to be impartial in their actions, the principles of neutrality prescribe directives by supervisors (Zamor, 2001). As a result, officials must practice leadership in a neutral manner. Institutional morality is often based on structure ethics, in which corporate leaders take personal moral obligation outside their supervisory responsibilities. 

The city of Plantation’s ability to hire, produce, and retain the best employees is dependent on their ability to follow organizational and administrative principles. By enhancing ethical decision-making among the workforce, ethics and moral philosophy ensure that public servants promote social justice and equity. Thus, by fostering morality and a professional code of ethics as guidance, the city of Plantation’s human capital can be modernized to promote social justice and equity without compromising their autonomy. Moreover, social responsibility is essential to upholding the accountability of public management as a component of ethic codes that specifies the acceptable rule for public employee conduct. Thus, through ethics, to study morality and morals to describe employee’s good behaviors and build trust through social responsibility to promote social equity and justice. City of Plantation’s human capital can be modernized and reinvigorated through incorporating ethical codes to change their behaviors, improving an administrator’s in turn, and eventual social justice and equity in the city due to increased trust from the employees’ social responsibility. 

Public Budgeting And Finance.


Budgeting in the public sector is a complex mechanism that is influenced by economic factors. The aim of budgeting is to make financial plans for potential operations based on expected profit from expenses. Before taking a concrete decision, the financial plan necessitates a thorough examination of projected incomes. Based on the anticipated outcomes, cost adjustments can be made. The classical budget theory, according to Ramakrishran & Ravi (2017), focuses on a shorter timeframe for budget unity and annual budgets. Timely audit and stringent allocation are two other important factors in the budgetary process. Because these problems have a detrimental effect on the budget allocation operation, the institutions are positioned to make corrections resulting from uncertainty and redundancy. 

Budgeting is an essential component of modern public governance and promotes trust between citizens and their government. A good budget embodies the fundamental pillars of public administration, such as participation, integrity, transparency, strategic approach to planning and achieving national objectives, accountability, and openness. As a tool of public administration, the budget represents a contract that establishes the government’s obligations, rights, and expectations. Thus, the budget reflects the public’s trust in the government to manage the public finances to improve public welfare prudently. 

It is the role of the city of Plantation’s employees to use the public budget and finances to build the public’s trust. Trust is crucial to the rationalization of tax payments. A modern city employee should possess good budgetary governance to effectively build, maintain, and improve the citizen’s in the institution of the government (OECD, 2017). For the City of Plantation, modernizing and reinvigorating the human capital can be achieved by improving their budgetary governance skills. Through training the city’s human capital on the importance of good fiscal governance, administrators can increase the trust level between government institutions and citizens. Good budgetary management involves delivering effective resource allocation and better long-term economic stability (OECD, 2017). As a result, the ability to actively engage in the process of budget allocation is critical to the recruitment, growth, and retention of competent employees. The skilled workers contribute to the budgeting process in order to optimize the revenue produced by the activities that the financial plan facilitates. Through developing competent human capital on the budgetary and financial decisions of the city, the fundamental trust between citizens and its government is enhanced. 

Fundamental Human Resource Management Techniques.

In hiring and selecting workers, an institution’s human resource management is important. Human capital is a significant factor in a public institute’s administration efficiency (Yahiaoui, Anser, & Lahouel, 2015). The city of plantation can modernize and improve its human resources through enhancing individual employee’s efficiency and performance. Motivation is a feasible human resource management strategy, according to Ramakrishran & Ravi (2017), for improving workforce productivity and success. Since motivation strives to increase performance levels, it has a positive influence on organizational conduct. Extrinsic motivation is the inspiration that humans create on their own, while intrinsic motivation is the encouragement that individuals form on their own. Extrinsic motivation is driven by variables outside of one’s control, including incentives. In City of Plantation, motivation is a crucial factor in the performance management of the human capital and high-performing, modern, and affordable public service. Motivation through better employee compensation and benefits, among others, human resources management can reinvigorate and modernize the workforce leading to improve performance and productivity.  

Leadership Qualities And Role Of The Rule Of Law.

The level of leadership accepted in the company has an effect on governance. Some examples of appropriate leadership include: role specialization , which is a leadership attribute that helps leaders to efficiently coordinate company teams (Ramakrishran & Ravi, 2017). Specialization in the City of Plantation is based on the individual skills that workers or future hires have. In turn, it ensures that the decisions by the public sector are effective due to the influence of particular knowledge of each employee in their fields of work. Another characteristic that leaders demonstrate is unity of command, which is manifested in the organization’s leadership structure at different levels of hierarchy. Another leadership characteristic is a period of power, which corresponds to the number of employees that answer to a supervisor. Through creating a unity of command and span of control, administrative decision-making is enhanced since it creates a uniform flow of information in the various layers of the city administration.

The rule of law is a vital element in public administration based on the law. In public administration, the rule of law establishes law and order and legal stability in a state besides enhancing order and transparency and reducing abuse by public administration officials (Eldar, 2014). The legislation also serves as a reference for organisations, as it establishes procedures for public sector employees’ interactions with people. Thus, as a link between society and administration, the City of Plantation’s workforce’s understanding of the rule of law in administrative procedures is essential to the city’s success. Through modernizing the employees’ knowledge of the rule of law, public administration is raised to a qualitatively new level. 

Processes For Public Planning And Their Impact On Change In The Public Sector. 


Different mechanisms are involved in public planning. Clarification of the aim, development of goal-oriented activities, and specification of input to the operations are all examples of these processes. In reinvigoration and modernization of the city of Plantation’s human capital, the public planning process provides a crucial element of the city’s public sector change. The administration uses the purpose clarification step to identify the specific areas of improvement needed in the human capital. Depending on the priority, can choose to improve employees’ skills, behaviors, and conduct, among others. Once the purpose is clearly identified, the administration can develop designs with goal-oriented actions that help achieve the objective. For example, to improve an institution’s service delivery by enhancing employee conduct, administrators can design activities that aim to change organizational culture regarding their behaviors and conduct. Finally, resources such as finances and time can be allocated to a specified program or action. The government’s program results are also assessed. It is possible to influence transformation in the city of Plantation’s publi secor using these methods, resulting in improved public administration performance and effectiveness.


The values, theories, and procedures of public administration are all unique. Recruitment, growth, and retention of staff are all based on public administration principles in the City of Plantation. These ideas describe how workers are treated and concentrate on the constitutional and governance standards that allow these initiatives. Through the practical applications of the various principles and theories of public administration, societal changes can be effected through effective public sector management of the human capital. Moreover, the obstacles of public administration, such as mistrust between citizens and government institutions and corruption, can be reduced through the development of a professional code of conduct and training on legal, economic, and social implications of limited employee knowledge. The theoretical approach to modernization and reinvigoration of employees in crucial elements of public administration can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of public administration in the city of Plantation.



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Kinchin, N. (2007). More than Writing on a Wall: Evaluating the Role that Codes of Ethics Play in Securing Accountability of Public Sector Decision‐Makers. Australian Journal of Public Administration66(1), 112-120.

OECD (2017), Trust and Public Policy: How Better Governance Can Help Rebuild Public Trust, OECD Public Governance Reviews, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Ramakrishnan, T. K & Ravi, R, K. (2017)”Theories and concepts of public administration.”

Rossel, C. H. (1975). White flight. Integrated Education13(6), 3-10.

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Zamor, J. C. G. (2001). Administrative ethics and development administration. University Press of America.

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