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Managing Contract Risk with an Integrations Clause

Throughout the initial stages of this research program, it has been necessary to develop questions that will act as guidelines in developing a view on both the third wave of feminism in order to further a view of the fourth wave, even if its existence is not verifiable as of yet. These questions have to take into account the history of feminism as well as the future of the movement, an undertaking that will require a keen understanding of the modalities through which the feminist movement is spreading. The first question which will be used to guide the research of this project is “Is the feminist movement in transition from the third wave ideology into a new, fourth wave of feminism?” This question is the one that will ultimately serve to guide the research project as a whole. There will have to be substantial proof found in order to declare that there is a new form of feminism occurring. It is important to realize that this question, being the main one, will rely on a variety of subset questions in order to determine if there is a significant change occurring within the area of feminism. The second question that will be explored throughout this research assignment is “What are the defining factors and limitations of the third wave feminist movement?”. It is imperative to outline the exact parameters of the third wave feminist movement. Understanding the boundaries of the movement and its evolution will help to determine whether or not the current feminist are merely embracing changes or whether there are ideological differences that are occurring between these groups. This is one of the questions that will bring the main question into focus and help to answer whether or not there is a shift in the feminist movement occurring. The final subset question that will be determined throughout this study is “What are the characteristics of the current form of feminism?” If the study is to be successful in identifying a new wave of feminist activity, then there have to be specific ways that the new wave differs significantly from the older waves. This will help demonstrate the overall changes that have occurred in feminism. Still, in order to successfully find out whether this conjecture about a fourth wave will hold true, it is important to identify the mode of research that will facilitate this study. Therefore, the primary source of answering these questions about feminism will be to perform intensive research. Not only is this the only way to get the intensive background about the third wave of feminism, but it will also allow the author of this paper to examine modern, prominent feminists in a variety of contexts to look into their views on the topic of change as well. Since the feminist movement is decentralized, this form of research will ultimately depend on the author’s interpretation to determine if there is a departure occurring between third wave feminism as it grows into a new wave.

This research project would fall into the category of one that is a research and applied project; therefore, the primary plan of action as it pertains to this subject will be completed through intensive research of each of the questions. Again, in order to make a determination about the greater primary question, the sub questions that were mentioned have to be explored completely throughout the study.
The first sub question that will be explored through this research project will be “What are the defining factors and limitations of the third wave feminist movement?”. The first step in answering this question that must be taken is to determine a means of finding out the modern definition of third wave feminism. Being that this wave of feminism has been occurring for the better part of two decades, there is a very good chance that scholarly literature exists which will provide guidance to answer the first part of the question. One of the articles that were used in researching this particular aspect of feminism was written by Kathy Ianello as she took a retrospective look at the aims and progress that has been made in terms of third-wave feminism. She said that unlike the other forms of feminism that sought basic civil rights and sexual liberation, the third-wave feminists’ primary concern can be examined in terms of leadership in the modern age. In particular, she said “This wave has the potential to empower women by helping them shatter the “glass ceiling” in politics, business, and other fields to which women have limited access, whether it be the presidency of the United States or chief executive officer of major corporations” (Ianello, 2010, p. 72). Thus, it would appear that the first subset question would have a basic framing: women in this wave are seeking greater forms of equality with men in terms of their professional standing. Therefore, the progression with respect to each feminist wave would be: suffrage and personhood, sexual liberation and autonomy, and equality in legal, economic, and political realms. Still, this is a very broad definition of the third wave because it takes into account the goals of the individuals while ignoring the individuals who were taking part in feminism.

One of the articles that were utilized throughout the literature review portion noted the changes that were occurring in the racial dynamics and representation of minority women who were a part of the feminist movement. In particular, Floyd found that there was a widespread growth in minority members of feminist groups as they continued to embrace women from all minorities and the LBGT community in their fight for equality (2007, p. 250). This showed specific growth that was unique in the development of the third-wave feminist movement. Therefore, it would be reasonable to create an assimilated view of the two major ideas. Third-wave feminism is a system that espouses equality in legal, economic, and political realms, and is noteworthy for the inclusion of previously marginalized individuals including those who belong in racial groups or specific sexual modalities. This definition is beneficial for establishing background on the feminist movement. However, another specific area that has to be evaluated is the way that women have conveyed their message throughout the third wave of feminism. This would be the final area of research that is completed, and would likely take into account that feminism has evolved along the lines of technology. This area of development is absolutely crucial to explore because third-wave feminism would have had to change at some point. In other words, the change from third-wave feminism would be marked by the necessity of certain forms of technology to spread the message as well as the changes in the message itself.

The next aspect of the study is to answer the sub question: “What are the characteristics of the current form of feminism?” In order to discern this, the research must evolve along the same lines as exploring the third-wave of feminism in the previous question. Thus, the first area that would be explored throughout this research to answer the sub question would be in regards to the goals of the modern age of feminism. Research into this particular aspect of feminism would have to take into account modern scholarly feminists and their take on the feminist movement. One of the examples of literature that explains the new goals of feminism in the modern age can be found in Purvis’ article that explores the nature of the “grrrls” of the third-wave feminists and how they have contributed to the “call out culture” that is so prevalent in the modern era of feminism. This is inexorably tied into the modern age of social justice that is held onto by feminists as more and more causes are claimed by them due to the overwhelming numbers of individuals that are able to take place in the movement. It is at this crux that the first aspect of modern feminism begins to delineate from the third-wave feminism. After all, equality in the aforementioned realms of law, politics, and society are inherently focused goals while the social justice attitudes has evolved to take on topics that are as inane as men spreading their legs too much on a subway.

The second area of feminism that has to be explored in the modern context in order to garner a full understanding of the definition of modern feminism is the individuals who are considered to be a part of the feminist equation. One of the most basic facts about the idea of dealing with an oppressed group, such as females, is that they have to use the strength of the oppressors within the context of their own struggle in order to succeed. This has been the case throughout the first three waves of feminism, but the majority of individuals that have been associated with the causes remained primarily female. That is why it is necessary to explore the characteristic make-up of the current generation of feminists to see if there are any differences between the older generation and the newer generation.


Preliminary research has shown that men are continually welcomed into the modern conceptualization of feminism, but more intensive research would have to be completed in order to show the degree to which men have been welcomed into the world of feminism. The presence of “grrrls” in the feminist movement is said to have prevented many men from becoming a part of the system or expressing a willingness to become involved in feminist organizations. Still, another factor remains to be examined in the context of the newer form of feminism and whether or not it can be considered a separate wave in its own right: how the messages of feminism have been spread throughout the modern age.

It would be fair to say that the modern age of feminism reflects the world around it and the subsequent growth that it has experienced. Therefore, all aspects of communication would have to be explored in terms of the messages of feminism. Being that one of the older models of expressing anger or a need to change was protesting, it would be prudent to examine how this area of feminism has fared in the present day. Researching the gatherings that have been organized in the present day and the amount of people that they have been able to gather would be an important area of research in order to examine if this has been abandoned or whether it has been made more successful.

Another area that is of great importance in the consideration of the understanding of the modern feminist movement is how it has evolved along the lines of technology. In particular, the areas of technology that are being consistently used for feminism is of interest. For example, one of the areas of research will examine how early social media helped to facilitate the growth of feminism on the internet. This will continue on and show the forms of development that have occurred in the internet. Any feminist-specific forms of media will be examined to determine how the modern form of feminism is different from the third wave of feminism. The ultimate determination of this approach would be to show if this form is dependent on technology and how technology has changed feminism. If there are significant changes, and the other areas of inclusivity and goals are different, then the answer to the primary question will be reached: a fourth wave of feminism would have emerged.

The organization of the data that is gathered will be kept under subheadings which divide the information into pieces based on the smaller questions. These sub questions will be broken down into smaller parts still in order to examine the different goals that are being pursued by feminists in both the third wave and the modern wave. Next, the people who are being invited to participate in each of the waves will be fully examined to see how the demographics of the feminists have changed in current years. Finally, the use of technology and the ways that it has evolved within the realm of feminism will be examined. After each of the smaller subsets has been examined, the new form of feminism will be determined. The third wave of feminism will be used as a foil for this form. Finally, with a firm understanding of the new form of feminism, an exploration of the scholarly works on the potential of the fourth wave will be examined to see if the different aspects of these forms of feminism are similar. This area of the research will be concluded once it is clear that the modern feminism represents a fourth wave or is an amalgamation or continuation of a previous movement.


Floyd, M. (2007). Research On Race And Ethnicity In Leisure: Anticipating The Fourth Wave. Leisure/Loisir, 31(1), 245-254. doi:10.1080/14927713.2007.9651380\

Iannello, K. (2010). Women’s Leadership and Third-Wave Feminism. Gender and Women’s Leadership: A Reference Handbook, 70-77. Retrieved June 21, 2015, from

Purvis, J. (2005). Grrrls and Women Together in the Third Wave: Embracing the Challenges of Intergenerational Feminism(s). NWSA Journal, 16(3), 93-123. Retrieved June 19, 2015, from

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By Hanna Robinson

Hanna has won numerous writing awards. She specializes in academic writing, copywriting, business plans and resumes. After graduating from the Comosun College's journalism program, she went on to work at community newspapers throughout Atlantic Canada, before embarking on her freelancing journey.

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