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The Domination of Africa, Asia, and Latin America in the 19th Century

The Domination of Africa, Asia, and Latin America in the 19th Century

In the 19th century, the Western World dominated many countries, specifically in Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Due to technological progress and industrialization, these European countries believed that they were superior, necessitating their lust for power. Countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America became the victims of imperialism, as Western powers took control over them to continue expanding their territories. These colonial powers were motivated by the availability of raw materials in the countries, which they required to run their industries (Basu and Miroshnik 2). The powerful countries colonized weaker countries to ensure that they obtained and controlled the supply of these raw materials. Imperialists majorly relied on brutal ways to control indigenous populations in these countries, with some of them using less aggressive approaches. The paper discusses how these imperialists dominated Africa, Asia, and Latin America in the 19th century, the factors that led to their domination, and the impacts of the conquest. 

European powers’ domination of Africa, Asia, and Latin America was motivated by their quest for power, dominance, influence, and expansion of territory (Hoffman 19). These countries believed that they were culturally superior, judging by the traditions and beliefs of the colonized countries, which they believed had inferior ways of life, traditions, and beliefs that needed replacement. Imperialism took political control and the creation of economic independence (Ocheni and Nwankwo 47). The imperialism period coincided with the unification of political units and growing nationalism in European countries. In the 19th century, imperialism became part of policy in Europe, with different powers scrambling for territories in Africa, Latin America, and Asia. The central imperial powers were Britain, France, and Germany. Other imperial powers were Italy, Portugal, Belgium, and Spain. 

Securing the loyalty of local chiefs and kings in the territories and the inferiority of weapons of the colonized countries made it capable for European countries to conquer large territories. Most of the European nations began by securing the loyalty of local kings and chiefs to trade with them in exchange for their territories. However, these colonial powers then started playing an active role in the affairs of these nations, which led to resistance. The resistance was met with superior weapons, which helped the colonial powers conquer large territories (Nieuwenhuyse and Valentim 106). For instance, the Ashanti struggled to hold the territory of Ghana due to the superior weapons that the British had.

The conquest had both positive and negative impacts on the conquered people. A significant positive effect of the conquest was strengthening governments and social institutions. Western powers established clear power structures in the colonized countries, which helped bring order. They introduced the concept of democracy for political stability purposes. Also, the conquest led to the introduction and encouragement of education and scientific thinking (Ocheni and Nwankwo 51). With these, the people learned essential concepts to achieve success in other aspects of life. A negative impact on the conquered people was that it led to massive loss of lives and property (Ocheni and Nwankwo 53). Imperialists commonly used violence against people that resisted their conquest. Also, it led to the discrediting of indigenous cultures, as the imperialists forced their cultures on the people.

In conclusion, various countries in Africa, Latin America, and Asia were dominated by the Western World in the 19th century, as the imperialists focused on expanding their territories. The major powers involved were Britain, France, and Germany. Other powers were Belgium, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. The superior weapons that the imperialists had helped them to seize large territories in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.


Works Cited

Basu, Dipak, and Victoria Miroshnik. Imperialism and Capitalism: Volume I. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020. 

Hoffman, Philip T. Why Did Europe Conquer the World? Princeton University Press, 2017. 

Nieuwenhuyse, Karel, and Joaquim P. Valentim. The Colonial Past in History Textbooks: Historical and Social Psychological Perspectives. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, Inc., 2018. 

Ocheni, Stephen, and Basil C. Nwankwo. “Analysis of colonialism and its impact on Africa.” Cross-Cultural Communication, vol. 8, no. 3, 2012, pp. 46-54. DOI:10.3968/j.ccc.1923670020120803.1189.

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By Hanna Robinson

Hanna has won numerous writing awards. She specializes in academic writing, copywriting, business plans and resumes. After graduating from the Comosun College's journalism program, she went on to work at community newspapers throughout Atlantic Canada, before embarking on her freelancing journey.

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