Description of Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism makes one of the major religions in the world. Globally, there are only a handful of individuals who subscribe to the religion. A prophet known as Zoroaster started the religion and later influenced the principles of the religion. This prophet was also known as Zarathushtra. This is a Greek name which is loosely translated as “Shining Light.” Zoroaster was born between 1500 BC and 1200 BC (Contractor & Contractor, 2003). Together with Hinduism, Zoroastrianism comprises the oldest religion in the world. The religion as founded in the East Asian regions.
The religion thrived through three great empires. The religion began during the reign of the Achaemenian empire. This Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great. The Achaemenian leaders established hegemony over a vast region, which span from Asia to northern Egypt (Contractor & Contractor, 2003). The religion continued to grow through the rule of the Parthian empire. The empire was extended to a similar radius as that of the Achaemenian Empire, and majorities of the subjects to the Empire were Zoroastrians. The Parthians came to power when they succeeded in ensanguining the Greeks. It was during the reign that Zoroastrianism prevailed, but it was largely unregulated. Therefore, this led to divergent forms of the religion. The religion found another vessel of extension in the Sasanian empire (Contractor & Contractor, 2003). The Sasanians rose and overcame the Parthians, and it was in this era that Zoroastrianism was reviewed. Initially, the practice was not subject to any regulation, but this changed under the Sasanian rule when it was made the State religion. They further established the position of a high priest. This marked the beginning of the spread of the religion. Through these initiatives, it became a universal religion.
Zoroastrianism is guided by several principles. To begin with, Zoroastrianism promotes the superiority of one God. The Supreme God in the Zoroaster religion is known as Ahura Mazda (Contractor & Contractor, 2003). He is considered to be omniscient, omnipotent, omnipresent, unchanging and the overall creator of life. Ahura Mazda communicated through a vision to his prophet Zoroaster. It is these visions that comprise the guiding frameworks in the religion. When men follow the teachings of Zoroaster, they become close to God. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]
Zoroastrianism further subscribes to the concept of holy immortals. These are known as Amesha Spentas. These immortals originate from God. They include Vohu Manah, Asha Vahishta, Spenta Ameraiti, Khashathra Vahithya, Hauravata, and Ameratat (Contractor & Contractor, 2003). Zoroastrianism promotes the concept of good and evil. Evil is attributed to Angra Mainyu. He is projected to be the supreme being’s adversary. Death is attributed to Angra Mainyu. When one dies, they go to hell or heaven depending on their deeds in life. Zoroastrianism promotes communal worship. Adherents to the religion converge to pray and augment their beliefs.
Antigone and Athens
The play Antigone comprises a Greek tragedy and is an extension of the prevailing Athenian culture. The play, developed by Sophocles follows the story of Antigone and Creole, the ruler of Athens. It alludes to the methods of engagement that were prevalent in the Greek society (Mastin, 2009). To begin with, Greek society was patriarchal. It reinforced the superiority of man over the woman. Men were given higher consideration in both politics and the family structure. Essentially, the administration of the community was man’s domain. Equally, when her brothers die, Antigone is overlooked, and the throne is passed onto her uncle. This is representative of the subservient nature of women in the prevailing society.
The role of women in this society is curtailed (Mastin, 2009). Despite the limitations, Sophocles captures the immensity of women’s inputs in the society. When her brothers die, Antigone prevails to do that which protects her family values above those of the law. She decides to renegade against Creon’s wishes and buries her brothers instead. She further indicates that she was willing to account for her mistakes. Antigone is an extension of the role of women in the Athenian society. Women were tasked with the duty of ensuring the continuity of the family, and she represents this responsibility.
Likewise, Antigone was an extension of the individuality the was prevalent in the region. The Greek culture promoted the concept of individualism (Mastin, 2009). Each individual had to strive to excel. Despite the social challenges, Antigone committed to burying her brother. Creon’s decree had prevailed that each individual should refrain from the burial. This further reinforces the immensity of the legal frameworks that prevailed in the city, and in Athens, that was lawful. Everyone was expected to abide by the law, which was instituted by the ruling class. These laws were then imposed on the subjects. No individual in the Athenian society was exempted from the law. In a similar manner, Sophocles forwarded that when Antigone breached the law, Creon was keen on punishing her. This means that the law had to be enforced even above family value.
Sophocles’ account further addresses the changes in democracy that took place during the war between Sparta and Athens (Mastin, 2009). Sparta was unlike Athens in the sense that Athens was a country built on the principles of democracy. The rules were enforced non-violently. Alternatively, Sparta was a militaristic country, in which the rule of law was imposed violently. Military training began during childhood. Therefore, the concept of benign democracy was overlooked. Creon’s actions against Antigone were an extension of the Spartan military culture. Creon committed to killing Antigone because of her actions. He refused to forgive and reinforced on the need for violent administration of the law. The culture of Athens was sophisticated. The elders of Athens reinforced the immensity of sanity to Creon. Creon in recognition of the immensity of gods and sophistication chose finally gave in to the elder’s demands. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]
Allegory of the Cave and the Persian-Peloponnesian Wars
Plato’s allegory of the cave is a reinforcement of the concept of existence in society. Essentially, it forwards the need for wisdom among the rulers. The philosopher laid great stress on reason in the decision-making process (Matus, 2016). The society, according to Plato, should be under the guidance wise individuals. Athens was a city built on the foundations of knowledge and intellect. Democratic principles reinforce the need for sophistication. It is these principles that were reinforced by Plato, and in addition, he was an advocate of individual excellence. Individual excellence then allows for the determination of an efficient system of government.
Unlike the Athenians, Spartans and Persians practiced a violent form of the government. Athens was persistently at hostilities with the city. Sparta was ruled by individuals who promoted violence against each other. This, according to Plato, was not the optimal form of governance. Therefore, in waging the war against Sparta, the allegory of the cave analogy reinforces that Athens intended to enlighten the Spartans (Matus, 2016). The Spartan State was unenlightened since they practiced a violent form of governance. This meant that their reasoning was blinded. The interesting part is that the citizens of Sparta did not realize that they were imprisoned and their realities were curtailed.
Still, the allegory of the cave principles can be used to examine the factors that may have led to the war between Sparta and Athens. Athens had continuously imposed on the captured States. These States were compelled to submit royalties to the ruling State. Furthermore, they were expected to work for the benefit of the larger Athens. Over time, through the uprising in Sparta, the residents were exposed to a new reality. This promoted reality involved an uprising. More States became aware that they needed not pay royalties to the Athens. Likewise, they came into the conception of the possibility of Athens defeat and its tendencies to limit their freedom. The war provided an opportunity through which their realities could change. They converged their efforts and thus decided to rise against the imposing nation, Athens. It was at this point that Athens was defeated.
The start of the war can be attributed to the shattering of the illusions of Athenian dominance that had prevailed initially. The illusions of Athenian dominance can be related to the concept of shadows in the Allegory of the Cave. Initially, the captured Sates, under the authority of Athens comprised cave dwellers (Matus, 2016). They were shackled and limited to the realities of their situations. When Sparta instituted attacks on Athens and won repeatedly, the reality kept on changing. There was an enhanced belief that their situations in captivity could be changed. This encouraged them to join hands to overcome the Athenians. These initiatives resulted in the success of most involved states. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]
What Makes Alexander so Great?
Alexander is lauded as one of the greatest generals in the history of humankind. This is based on account of his military and political campaigns throughout Europe and beyond. His greatness was a culmination of several influences. To begin with, Alexander had a solid philosophical background, and Aristotle philosophies made up most of his knowledge in the field. Aristotle was a former student of Plato (Live Science, 2004). Plato had instilled extensive philosophical knowledge to Aristotle. Given his philosophically inspired background, Alexander was able to make informed decisions even during the times of tough situations. In recognition of the immensities of education, Alexander made it a habit to bring scientists along on his campaigns, and this provided a new perspective on his leadership.
In addition, Alexander was a wise leader. He knew when to employ propaganda and violence in responding to his enemies. As a kid, Alexander had been able to tame a wild bull. Alexander’s father had gotten the bull at an inflated price but then upon arrival, the bull refused to be tamed. The more the residents of the palace tried to mount him, the more violent the bull became. Alexander noticed that the bull was afraid of its on shadow (Live Science, 2004). He then turned the bull towards the sun and as able to climb him. Turning the bull towards the sun transferred the shadow to the bull’s posterior. It was in this instance that Alexander had won his first glory towards greatness. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]
Alternatively, Alexander’s greatness can be attributed to his military and strategic prowess. Alexander was able to establish and alternate more than one military style. He designed his army formations depending on the marauding enemy. Alexander perfected the Phalanx. This comprised a military strategy that involved the dissection of the army into several fragments. It enabled him to cause maximum casualties to the enemy (Live Science, 2004). Furthermore, he employed his knowledge to ensure that his generals were justly awarded. Alexander extended all the necessary resources to the army. This allowed the army to commit fully to their duties. Therefore, they were always ready to face the enemy.
Alexander was also both a political and military leader. Consequently, he was able to draft decisions that complemented his initiatives politically and militarily. He was also a master at delegation. He knew when it was time to pass on the duties to the next in line despite his overall authority. This served to reinforce the loyalty that his generals extended him. In his campaigns, he always entrusted a segment of his army to an inferior party. He further projected characters such as a balanced temperament, determination, and moral courage. This is a reflection of a mature countenance. His greatness is a consequence of his abilities to successfully discern the human character.
Contractor, D., & Contractor, H. (2003). Zoroastrianis: History, Beliefs, and Practices. Retrieved September 20, 2016, from Theosophical Society
Live Science. (2004, December 10). Top 10 Reasons Alexander the Great Was, Well… Great!Retrieved September 20, 2016, from Live Science
Mastin, L. (2009). Ancient Greece-Sophocles-Antigone. Retrieved September 20, 2016, from Classical Literature
Matus, D. (2016). In What Literary Period Was “Allegory of the Cave” Written? Retrieved September 20, 2016, from Seattle