College Essay Examples

Global Recession and its Impacts on the Economy

Global Recession and its Impacts on the Economy

The term “global recession” refers to a prolonged period of worldwide economic collapse. The effect of a global recession is felt in many countries because trade and financial organizations carry monetary disturbances and the recession’s influence from one nation to the succeeding. Recessions are defined by a significant decline in macroeconomic indices over an extended time. According to the National Bureau of Economic Research’s study, which is regarded as the national authority in announcing and timing economic cycles, it is widely agreed that GDP must fall for two consecutive quarters before an actual recession occurs. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) serves a similar function to the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) during global recessions. This document relies on the worldwide recession and its impacts on the economy.

As is expected in a recession, credit becomes more difficult to get, and short-term rates of interest decline. Unemployment rates rise as companies try to reduce expenses. As a result, consumption declines, which in turn lowers inflation. Lower prices result in lower business profits, which leads to more job losses and a mutually reinforcing recession. National governments often step in to help save failing companies or financially vital institutions like giant banks. Companies that have the insight and preparation to take full advantage of falling interest and pricing rates see an opportunity to cut their cost of capital and capitalize on the downturn. Employers may hire more qualified individuals since there is a more excellent pool of jobless employees.

Global recession causes cyclic unemployment. There is a form of unemployment known as cyclical unemployment, in which the workforce is decreased due to business sequences or economic variations, including downturns (stages of economic deterioration). The percentage of recurrent joblessness is low when the business is at its best or rising continuously. Sales and revenue rise throughout this period, necessitating the hiring of additional personnel to keep up with the demand. The rate of cyclic or involuntary servitude unemployment is higher during a recession, on the other hand, since consumer demand for products and services declines (Omoshoro & jones, 2021). This means that output is down, and fewer people are required to fill the void, which leads to layoffs. Currently, the number of jobless employees outnumbers employment openings on the market. When a car worker is left off during a recession to reduce labor expenses, this is an example of cyclical unemployment. People are purchasing fewer automobiles as the economy deteriorates; therefore, the factory will require fewer personnel to keep up with demand. When the economy picks up, the jobless worker may be rehired to match demand, and people start spending more money on automobiles. There is cyclicality to their high unemployment because of these changes in economic conditions. Whether it’s high or low, unemployment is merely a matter of time (Kaplan et al., 2017). The unemployment rate constantly fluctuates as the economy goes through economic cycles and comes out of them again.

Furthermore, global recession results in economic inflation. Inflation refers to a concept of the economy whereby there is an increase in the prices of services and goods over a given period. The rise in price levels implies that the monetary value in a specific economy loses its purchasing power; that is, fewer goods or services can be bought with the exact amount of currency. Factors causing inflation in a given economy over the medium term and short term persist to be a subject of contesting among most economists throughout the globe. Though, there is an agreement that long-term increase is brought about by variations in currency resource (Umar et al., 2020). In case inputs produce inelastic goods, high demand such as medication and oil, and prices increase margins, and suppliers will be forced to raise product prices for compensation. This results from several factors that include tariffs, environmental catastrophes, government scarcity, or sanctions. If they are widely spread, this feature can cause a nudge in CPI to be higher, leading to inflation. The reverse is also true in that lower price inputs can lead to deflation. Assuming all other variables remain constant, increasing consumer demand for products will result in higher product prices (CPI). Various causes, such as shifts in consumer insatiable appetite, long-term shortage prospects, or a rise in the money supply, may boost consumer demand for commodities and increase consumer prices. A currency’s buying power depreciates over time due to changes in the money supply. Governments may boost the money supply in several ways, including printing more money or making credit more widely available (Kose et al., 2021). A decrease in interest rates may encourage people to borrow more, which will increase the amount of money in circulation. We can see from the graph above that an increase in money supply combined with stable demand results to a decline in the worth of a money.

There is also a reduction in economic opportunities: recessions and high unemployment limit economic opportunities for people and families beyond a shadow of a doubt. Individuals and the whole economy suffer when jobs are lost, wages fall, and poverty rises. A recent study shows that university graduates entering the workforce throughout a recession would earn less than individuals entering the market in non-recessionary conditions, as one example of missed opportunities. There is surprising evidence suggesting that a person’s reduced wages will last for the rest of their working life. According to the findings, graduating college in a terrible economy has enormous, negative, and long-lasting implications for the job market (Dahliah et al., 2020). The pain of loss persists. There’s a good chance that those who didn’t go to college would do worse. Even though unemployment has risen for all demographics during the most recent crisis, individuals with less education and poorer incomes have substantially higher rates than those in other categories.

Low levels of private investment in an economy. Investments are one of the most visible ways recessions limit economic development. For a long time now, economists have understood that investment and technology play a critical role in driving economic growth. As a result of recessions, investment expenditures may and do fall and the implementation of new technologies. At the very least, four elements have contributed to this development. As consumers’ earnings reduce due to a downturn in the economy, demand for companies’ goods will fall. This lowers the return on investments. Second, enterprises will be unable to invest if they have restricted access to loans (Song & Zhou, 2020). The third reason is that recessions are times of increasing uncertainty, which may cause companies to cut down on “core” and manufacturing methods, making it less probable for them to try out new ones. Finally, the relationship between physical and human capital must be taken into account. New physical equipment generally incorporates technology; when output and employment decline, the demand for unique equipment increases. Worker productivity suffers as a consequence, and the requirement to “up-skill” current employees or recruit different employees with fresh abilities is condensed.

Conclusively, global recession impacts a country’s economy in a wrong way, especially causing unemployment amongst many people, inflation in the state’s currency, low investment opportunities by the private sector, and reduction in economic opportunities. However, increase your contributions or begin dollar-cost average in a non-qualified investing account when the market starts to fall.


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Kaplan, E. K., Collins, C. A., & Tylavsky, F. A. (2017). Cyclical unemployment and infant health. Economics & Human Biology, 27, 281-288.

Omoshoro-Jones, O. S. (2021). Asymmetry in Okun’s Law Revisited: New evidence on cyclical unemployment–cyclical output trade-off in the Free State Province using NARDL model.

Song, L., & Zhou, Y. (2020). The COVID‐19 pandemic and its impact on the global economy: What does it take to turn crisis into opportunity? China & World Economy, 28(4), 1-25.

Su, C. W., Khan, K., Tao, R., & Umar, M. (2020). A review of resource curse burden on inflation in Venezuela. Energy, 204, 117925.

By Phillip Connoly

Phillip started his career working in small-town newspapers throughout central and western Canada before embarking on an online career. He writers blogs, branding content, white papers, business plans, resumes and cover letters.

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