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Discussion Question 1
Choose one sexually transmitted illness (STI). Discuss the presenting signs and symptoms, exam findings, diagnostic testing, evidence-based treatment, and patient education. 
Sexually transmitted diseases are caused by infections passed through sexual contact from one person to another.  There are many kinds of sexually transmitted infections (or diseases) but in this discussion we are going to explore Syphilis in specific. The infection is transmitted through oral sex, vaginal as well as anal (Thompson, 2011).

Signs and Symptoms of Syphilis
Treponema pallidum is the biological name of the microorganism that causes Syphilis and the manifestation of this bacteria causes;
•    Enlarged lymph nodes
•    Headaches
•    Muscle aches
•    Hair loss
•    Weight loss
•    Fatigue

Exam Findings 
A positive result in any findings from the tests indicates the presence of syphilis in the blood. On the other hand, a negative result implies that there is no syphilis infection present and the symptoms are due to another cause.

Diagnostic Testing
Blood or urine sample is taken from a person suspected to be infected with the disease to run the tests. Also, the doctor conducts a physical examination to take a sample from a sore, if at all the sore is present, and determines whether Treponema Pallidum microorganism is present. Thus, during the procedure, the doctor must be competent enough to determine whether the person is suffering from syphilis or not. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Evidence-Based Treatment
Penicillin injection is the most widely used and easiest way of treating syphilis. A different oral antibiotic can be used to treat people who are allergic to penicillin which often requires a brief hospital stay. The treatment mostly focuses on easing discomfort along with the associated pain.

Patient Education 
Syphilis infection causes severe damage and is only spread through direct contact with syphilitic chancres. It is a good idea to use condoms during any sexual contact, get screened for sexually transmitted infections, and avoid sharing sex toys as well as avoiding having sex with multiple partners.  [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Discussion Question 2
Does Tanner staging vary from culture to culture? Why or why not? Support your answers with citations, giving an example of one culture.
Tanner staging is a physical development in children, adolescents, and adults. The developments vary from culture to culture since the physical measurement is based on both outer primaries as well as secondary sex characteristics such as pubic hair, breasts, and genitals. Tanner staging in both boys and girls vary according to clinicians and epidemiologists. This is the time the gonads produce elevated levels of sex hormones that lead to differentiation as well as the development of secondary characteristics. It’s hard to separate the enormous cognition and social development that occur during Tanner staging. Height in both girls and boys increase and the shape of the body changes as the table below shows.

Callahan, & Caughey, 2014
The responses as suggested by the peers indicate that excess hormone cause Tanner staging. Conversely, Callahan and Caughey (2014) argue that early sexual development and incidences of early puberty can cause pathological conditions. The African culture exemplifies the cultures where tanner staging varies. This is due to uneven pubic hair development and distribution.

Discussion Question 3
Discuss the Bethesda Classification of Pap smear testing and evaluation. What are some common causes of abnormal Pap smear results? What treatments would you recommend?
According to Malina and Bouchard (2014), for almost three decades now the Bethesda System has a profound effect on the practice of cervical cytology. The conferences held based on Bethesda System sets the stage for the standardization of terminologies across multiple organ systems. The terminology reflected the current understanding of cervical neoplasia. A Pap test is ideally a screening test where a sample of cells from the cervix and vagina of women is taken. The test protects women from cervical cancer.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Causes of Abnormal Pap Smear Results
•    Low-grade abnormalities
•    High-grade abnormalities
•    Glandular abnormalities

•    Regardless of sexual records, cervical cancer screening should commence at the age of 21 years
•    Women aged 21 to 29 years should perform cervical cytology in every three years
•    Women who had an organ transplant exposure should continue with yearly pap tests.


Callahan, & Caughey, (2014). Blueprints obstetrics & gynecology. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer
Health/Lippincott William & Wilkins.

Malina, & Bouchard, (2014). Growth, maturation, and physical activity. Champaign, Ill. [u.a.:
Human Kinetics.

Thompson, L. (2011). Syphilis. Philadelphia and New York: Lea & Febiger.

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By Hanna Robinson

Hanna has won numerous writing awards. She specializes in academic writing, copywriting, business plans and resumes. After graduating from the Comosun College's journalism program, she went on to work at community newspapers throughout Atlantic Canada, before embarking on her freelancing journey.

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