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Literature Review      
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) (2014) notes that about 25% of Americans aged 60 years and above have diabetes. The report singles out aging as the salient driver of the epidemic. In a study by Espeland (2007), 5145 individuals aged between 45 and 74 with type II diabetes were randomized. It was found that 54.4% of the people visited clinics eligibly. Due to the age differences, 13.5% were not eligible, 8.6% did not have diabetes, and those with type I diabetes turned out to be 4.4%. Individuals who were not eligible due to staff judgment were 7.6%, those with increased blood pressure were 7% and those with incomplete behavioral run-ins stood at 4.8%. In the first year of intervention, participants had an average weight loss of 8.6% and a 21% improvement in cardiovascular fitness. Some of the participants who were on insulin eventually lost 7.6% of the initial weight, while those who hardly lost weight used a weight loss medicine (orlistat) after the sixth month of intensive exercise and calorie intake deduction.

The Look AHEAD trials concluded that the differences in the ILI and DSE groups regarding the change in the risking factors in the initial year stems from the cardiovascular benefits of the ILI. However, they pointed out that it could require more years to ascertain the possibility of maintaining the weight loss. Additionally, the study did not give a definitive analysis as to whether the weight loss could result in long-term effects concerning the risking factors. Furthermore, the authors did not clearly establish whether the favorable risking factors changes may reflect a reduction in the cardiovascular events.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

In exploring the analysis done by Jeon et al. (2007), random effect models were used to measure the effective size of type II diabetes. Ten studies comprising of 301,221participants and 9,367 cases were conducted.  Five of those studies focused on walking as an activity that reduced type II diabetes risks. It was established that the summary relative risks were 0.69 for those who moderately participated in physical activity. On the other hand, the relative risks for the BMI-unadjusted compared to the highest and lowest walking level was 0.7. The research indicates that even with BMI changes, the association remained an important factor in participants of both genders. In a study of 10 cohort studies, the authors observed a significant inverse association in the physical activity, moderate intensity and the risks of T2DM. They pointed out that it was 30% less risky to T2DM as compared to other sedentary peers. Regular walking showed similar results. However, even after changing the MBI, the diabetes risks did not seem reduced; it remained at 17%. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

It is more likely the limiting factors that contributed to the negative results as was anticipated in the MBI stem from designs of the data used in the study. Their meta-analysis data was more observational-based as opposed to empirical ones. Thus, it is most likely that the summary estimates were substantially affected by confounding and other biases that could have found their ways to the analysis.

In 2013, Reiner et al. conducted a review summary of the existing studies with the aim of delineating the relationship between physical activity and weight gain, T2DM, dementia, Alzheimer diseases and coronary heart disease. The authors based their research on the hypotheses that treatment of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) causes escalated costs to the health facilities, hence the need to address them through physical activity programs. In their understanding, this is supposed to reduce the associated risks of these diseases. The method they applied involved fifteen longitudinal surveys with not less than 5-year follow-up periods with total participants of 288,724 with each study containing not less than 500 of them. The age of the participants was an important factor in this research and thus they chose individuals ranging from 28 to 85 years with the help of a digital database. These comprised of English-based studies regarding the healthy adults, NCDs, and international physical study.  The analysis findings indicated that physical activities had a positive, long-lasting influence on all the disease selected in this study. As a result of the review, the authors found a paucity of long-term surveys concerning the relationship between NCD instances and the physical activity. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Just like Jin et al. (2007), this review study did not involve empirical research. Their meta-analysis data was more observational based as opposed to empirical-based. Thus, it is most likely that the summary reports were substantially affected by other confounding biases that could have found their ways to the analysis. For instance, the study did not involve subsamples representing the normal communities or unhealthy participants alone in their quest to longitudinal improvements of the NCDs as a result of the physical activity. There was no control samples in the review studies used. The study primarily sought to find out whether the method used was worth to be applied in other future studies. It is only after comparisons that it was easier to point out the significance of various conditions in the intended results. The current research did not have a control sample in place making the validation of their findings to face practical challenges.

In another study, Hotta et al. (2000) related the adipose-specific protein available in the circulation system as being a salient factor of type II diabetes dependant on the ambient conditions. The protein has the anti-atherogenic properties. The study involved a total of 183 participants who had diabetes type II including 127 men and 56 women. They drew blood samples after an overnight fast and two hours before and after an ingestion of 75 grams of plasma glucose.  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The authors analyzed the concentration of plasma adiponectin levels in age and BMI matched type II diabetic, and non-diabetic participants recorded to have or not have the coronary artery disease (CAD). The adiponectin plasma levels in CAD patients showed lower results as compared to the non-diabetic individuals. They also found the concentrations of plasma adiponectin diabetic patients who equally happened to have lower CAD as compared to that of diabetic patients. However, the leptin levels did not show a significant difference between the two categories of patients. They concluded that weight reduction elevated plasma adiponectin concentration to large margins in both groups. They found that the decrease in plasma adiponectin is an indicator of macroangiopathy. Consequently, the attempts in reducing body weight as a way of normalizing plasma adiponectin could be sufficient to curb atherosclerosis. The study involved control experiments and empirical analysis of the data obtained. Thus, its findings can be implemented to prevent weight gain issues that cause type II diabetes.


American Diabetes Association. (2014). Older Adults.

Bherer, L., Erickson, K. I., & Liu-Ambrose, T. (2013). A review of the effects of physical activity and exercise on cognitive and brain functions in older adults. Journal of aging research.

Espeland, M. (2007). Reduction in weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors in individuals with type II diabetes: one-year results of the look AHEAD trial. Diabetes care.

Hotta, K., Funahashi, T., Arita, Y., Takahashi, M., Matsuda, M., Okamoto, Y., … & Nishida, M. (2000). Plasma concentrations of a novel, adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in type II diabetic patients. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology, 20(6), 1595-1599.

Jeon, C. Y., Lokken, R. P., Hu, F. B., & Van Dam, R. M. (2007). Physical activity of moderate intensity and risk of type II diabetes a systematic review. Diabetes care, 30(3), 744-752.

Reiner, M., Niermann, C., Jekauc, D., & Woll, A. (2013). Long-term health benefits of physical activity–a systematic review of longitudinal studies. BMC public health, 13(1), 1.

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By Hanna Robinson

Hanna has won numerous writing awards. She specializes in academic writing, copywriting, business plans and resumes. After graduating from the Comosun College's journalism program, she went on to work at community newspapers throughout Atlantic Canada, before embarking on her freelancing journey.

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