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Theory Critique of Neuman’s System Model
Betty Neuman’s theory views individuals as a system made up by physiological, psychological, sociocultural, spiritual, and developmental subparts (Cardinal Stritch University, 2017). To create these guidelines, the model defines the factors that influence people’s reactions to stressor stimuli, which include: body temperature, response patterns, physical healthy, mental health, and genetic makeup (ADU Online, 2017). The theory is based off the idea that a person can remain stable as long as the stressors they are exposed to do not exceed the resources they maintain to cope with them (ADU Online, 2017). Through utilizing the philosophical ideas of holism, wellness, motivation, perception, and partnerships (Campbell, Johanning, & Hill, 2015), Nursing Practitioners can apply the Neuman theory in order to ensure for efficient and effective operations both within clinical settings, as well as within the classroom.

Chinn and Kramer define the purpose of a theory to be its ability to define the actions of nursing practitioners in clinical, educational, and administrative settings (Chinn & Kramer, 1999). Within the theory proposed by Betty Neuman, the purpose is to create guidelines for Nursing Practitioners on how they should interact with people both within clinical settings, as well as educational and administration settings (Cardinal Stritch University, 2017).

Concepts, Definitions, and Structure
The key concepts of the Neuman System’s Model can be divided into four parts: human beings, environment, health, and nursing (Campbell, Johanning, & Hill, 2015). These four concepts can then be further divided into subparts defining different variables and use-cases. Within the concept of humans, these subparts include: the client system (open system of input and output), interacting variables (developmental, spiritual, psychological, physiological, and sociocultural), basic factors (normal temperature range, genetic structure, response pattern, organ strength, ego structure), lines of defense (flexibility, wellness, stability), and lines of resistance (protective mechanisms) (Campbell, Johanning, & Hill, 2015). Within the concept of environment, this includes the internal, external, and created environments, as well as environmental stressors (Campbell, Johanning, & Hill, 2015). Finally, within the concept of health, this includes the general wellness of the client, and finally within nursing this includes concepts of prevention as an intervention strategy (Campbell, Johanning, & Hill, 2015).
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The assumptions that this model makes includes the composition of clients, the existence of variable environmental stressors, the dynamic nature of client-wellness, and the existence of both lines of defense (responses to stressors) and lines of resistance (ability to remain stable when faced with stressors) (Current Nursing, 2012).

Critical Reflection
The nursing theory by Chinn and Kramer will be used to critique Neuman’s System Model. This theory will be used to critique the clarity, simplicity, generalizability, accessibility, and importance of Neuman’s System Model (Chinn & Kramer, 1999).[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

1 – Clarity
Within the model, the scope and definitions are clear and well defined, through the compartmentalization of the separate concepts of the model. Through using the four nursing paradigms of human beings, environment, health, and nursing principles, it makes the general methods simple and straightforward, with easily identifiable definitions, and concise guidelines for client-interactions (Current Nursing, 2012).

2 – Simplicity 
The Neuman’s System Model divides the philosophy and strategies of the model into the four key paradigms of human beings, environment, health, and nursing principles (Current Nursing, 2012). From here, it logically interconnects the subparts to better understand how the different factors all result in different outcomes. Once these basic principles and factors are understood, it makes for an easily deployable model of client-interactions.

3 – Generalizability
The four paradigms of the system model allow it to be applied to several different circumstances, depending on the nature of the clients, and the stressors within the environment. This makes the theory broad and robust in scope, such that it can be applied in circumstances involving clinical environments, as well as in educational and administrative settings.

4 – Accessibility
Much research has been performed utilizing the theories of the Neuman’s System Model. These studies have allowed the proposed model to become qualitatively and quantitatively validated in a number of research settings, including nursing education, practice, administration, and other interdisciplinary functions (Neuman, 1996). [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

5 – Importance 
The importance of the Neuman’s System Model is within the robustness of its application. It allows for efficient and effective client-interactions in nearly all possible settings, such that it can be used on a day-to-day basis by a large number of individuals within clinical fields.

Through the clear and concise compartmentalization of Neuman’s System Model, Betty Neuman has created a robust and flexible series of theories that is comprehensive for many scenarios within nursing practice (Current Nursing, 2012). By focusing on the responses of clients to their environments, and understanding and predicting environmental stressors, nurses can utilize strategies of prevention intervention to ensure for ideal client system-wellness.


ADU Online. (2017). What is the Neuman Systems Model?

Campbell, R., Johanning, R., & Hill, T. (2015). Neuman Systems Model.

Cardinal Stritch University. (2017). Betty Neuman – Systems Model.

Chinn, P., & Kramer, M. (1999). Theory and nursing. St. Louis: Mosby.

Current Nursing. (2012, January 28). Betty Neuman’s System Model.

Neuman, B. (1996, April 1). The Neuman Systems Model in Research and Practice.

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Hanna has won numerous writing awards. She specializes in academic writing, copywriting, business plans and resumes. After graduating from the Comosun College's journalism program, she went on to work at community newspapers throughout Atlantic Canada, before embarking on her freelancing journey.

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