Berezan, Ron & Haluza-DeLay, Randolph. (2010). Permaculture in the city: ecological habitus and the distributed ecovillage. Localizing Environmental Anthropology: Bioregionalism, Permaculture, and Ecovillage Design for a Sustainable Future. Joshua Lockyear & Jim Veto (Eds.) Oxford: Berghahn Books.
This essay is primarily focused on the sociological aspects of urban permaculture farming. This includes forming social networks and the generation of social capital through food production and labor sharing. Taken from an edited anthology, this article is somewhat convivial in tone; however, it displays impressive knowledge and abundant citations of other academic texts. Its relevance to this essay lies in establishing the idea of an “eco-village.”
Choudhury, B.I., Kahn, M. L. & Saikia, P. (2012). Floristic composition and plant utilization pattern in homegardens of Upper Assam, India. Tropical Ecology, 53(1): 105-118.
This study analyzes data taken from 80 homegarden cites in the Upper Assam region. Data collected at each site includes area rainfall, plot size, diversity of plant species, analysis of the health and growth of these species, and consideration of their usefulness. The contributing authors performed direct scientific study in the area and provide ample references to pre existing studies as well. Their findings prove the viability of small home forest gardens for producing diverse food and other resources for local consumption.
Clark, Kyle H. & Nicholas, Kimberly A. (2013). Introducing urban food forestry: a multifunctional approach to increase food security and prove ecosystem services. Landscape Ecology, 28.6. DOI 10.1007/s10980-013-9903-z
The article describes the results of research and scientific study on urban forestry. The literature review explains some of the tenants of urban forestry and sustainable production, and examines the work of 37 existing initiatives around the country as well as 30 urban forestry master plans. The scholars’ own research focuses on growing public apple orchards in Burlington, VT. The article extensively cites a wide variety of pertinent sources and organizes the information into an accessible format. Much of the background offered is relevant to the questions of sustainability and community resilience addressed in this essay.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2008). Urban Agriculture: For
Sustainable Poverty Alleviation and Food Security. FAO.
This paper serves as a framework for helping other organizations to meet the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals regarding food security and environmental sustainability. It gives an overview of food related urban agriculture and evaluates ongoing initiatives that play a role in encouraging these goals. There is no specific author cited, but as an official UN document that cites appropriate sources and provides information for related organizations, the source is credible. Its relevance lies in its definition of urban agriculture and description of how it can be used to combat food insecurity. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2008). An Introduction to the basic concepts of food security. Food security information for action: Practical guidelines. FAO Food Security Program.
This report serves as an introduction to the issue of food security around the world. It provides definitions for important terms and information about the causes of food insecurity. Because it is published by the FAO, it is safe to assume that it is a credible source despite the lack of academic citations. In the context of this essay it provides definitions for food security.
Hart, Robert. (1996). Forest gardening: Cultivating an edible landscape (2nd ed.). White River
Junction: Chelsea Green Publishing.
Forest Gardening is an often referenced seminal work in the field of permaculture and forest gardening. Hart’s book mixes anecdotal evidence and experience with design suggestions, polyculture recommendations, and some historical background. Hart is a well respected scholar in the field, and although his book does not use proper academic citation style it does give an extensive reference list. It provides a good introduction to the ideas behind forest gardening.
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Kennedy, Declan. (1991).Permaculture and the sustainable city. Ekistics 58, no. 348/349: 210-15.
The article focuses on how permaculture design can be used to improve various aspects of city life. These include everything from increasing the number and health of distinct urban ecosystems to propagate wildlife, to encouraging humane transport and improving the local food economy. The article is based on a course offered at a seminar entitled “Permaculture and the Sustainable City,” and draws primarily from renowned sources in the field. Its analysis of the human benefit of improved urban ecosystems is of relevance to the arguments that crop diversity and local production can help in fighting food scarcity. . [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]
Kumar, B.M. & Nair, P.K.R. (2004). The enigma of tropical homegardens. Agroforestry Systems,
The article takes a scientific approach to analyzing the benefits of tropical homegardens in Kerala, India. It draws on descriptions and system inventories from the past 25 years as well as what existing literature there is on the subject and addresses the relevance of this data to establishing sustainable agricultural practices in other areas. The article draws from scientific sources and provides ample citations of other academic works. Its relevance lies in proving the effectiveness of existing forest style gardening in tropical climates.
Mollison, Bill. (1997). Introduction to Permaculture. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press.
The book provides a basic introduction to permaculture ideas and practice. Bill Mollison is considered by most people to be the father of permaculture, so although his books are written with an accessible style in order to encourage a wider audience, they contain well researched practical information. This source is relevant to the essay because it lays out a groundwork for the ideas behind permaculture and forest gardening.
Wolf, K. L. (2004). Economics and public value of urban forests. Urban Agriculture Magazine, Special Issue on Urban and Periurban Forestry, 13: 31-33.
This article is focused primarily on the economic impacts of urban forestry in general. It is short, but offers some insight into potentially motivating factors for local government. All human and ecosystem benefits analyzed are discussed only in terms of their economic importance. The article is relatively recent, having been published in 2004 in a magazine specifically dedicated to the field of urban agriculture. It briefly addresses a wide variety of motivations for encouraging urban forestry, including localization of food production, which is one of the main concerns of this essay.