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Computer Software Manufacturing Sample Essay

Introduction 

            Company location is a key to successful business operation and overall growth. In choosing a location to set up a company, several factors need to be taken into consideration including the workforce, tax incentives, customers and equipment needed in the manufacturing process among other strategic factors. Globalization has come with some important benefits especially the ability to easily transfer capital from one region to another and that gives companies that ability to operate almost everywhere. In this paper, the discussion explores the strategic importance of locating a computer software manufacturing company in three locations: Bangalore in India, San Francisco in the US and Nairobi in East Africa.

Discussion

            The Indian city of Bangalore is a hub for information technology companies in Indian just like Silicon Valley is the hub for information technology in San Francisco in the US. In fact, Bangalore is the new Silicon Valley of the world. Bangalore is an ideal location due to its tax incentives, cheap and skilled labor force. Bangalore emerged as computer software and a research and development subcontracting center back in 2012. As of now, it boasts of a skilled labor force due to the high literacy rate in India. Moreover, unlike in the US, the labor is cheap and there are tax havens and incentives by the Indian government to encourage foreign investment (Neelankavil 195). The downside to this strategy is that the logistics of setting up a hub in Bangalore may be initially costly.

The other strategic place to locate the company would be at the Silicon Valley in San Francisco in the US. Having been the parent site for the Information technology revolution in the world, the company would benefit from a very skilled and knowledgeable work force. For a company that is seeking to expand, the high quality of the manufactured software could be the competitive advantage that the company could anchor itself on. However, the cost of operation would be high due to the high cost of labor in the US as well as the absent tax havens by the government. Moreover, with the saturated US market, the company would not be able to enjoy high returns because the sales would be low and the operational costs being high.

The last viable location is Nairobi in Kenya, the most advanced country in East Africa that also serves as the entry into the African Market. Kenya has one of the literacy levels in the region and hence it has a knowledgeable and skilled work force to meet the production needs. The labor force would also come cheap as there are no minimum wage regulations in the country. The country also has tax incentives for foreign countries as it seeks to attract foreign investors and many other global multinationals such as Boeing have rushed there. On the downside, there are few laws governing intellectual property rights and therefore, the process of manufacturing the product must be kept a secret less the product is replicated into the market by other firms that may not have bothered to invest in research and development (Neelankavil 196). Moreover, with its virgin markets in this sector, the company can sell into the East African market and make some supernormal profits in the medium and short term.

Conclusion

            The paper has explored three distinct regions for the establishment of the company. Each of these locations offers some unique opportunities and challenges. As noted, most of the locations outside the US have the opportunity of cheap labor and tax incentives because they aim at attractive foreign firms into their countries. Moreover, these regions have the advantage of unsaturated markets and could potentially become important markets for the company to sell its products. However, they have the challenges of the quality of the labor and insufficient laws to prevent intellectual property thefts and other regulations against unfair competition. On the other hand, locating the company in the US would guarantee it of high skilled labor and an established industry but has the challenge of high operational costs due to lack of government incentives as well as the high cost of labor and a saturated market.

Work Cited

Neelankavil. Basics of International Business. New York, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2015. Print.

Engagement Strategy Sample

Engagement Strategy

Due to the slow growth of Tangle, it is imperative that various stakeholders are engaged in the process of building Tangle’s market share. Despite the acquisition of a competitor in 2011, the company has not managed to capitalize on this acquisition, and has thus had stagnant growth. Therefore, it is imperative to the company’s prosperity to acquire major investment into infrastructure in order for the firm to promote growth.

Courtesy iStock

A major stakeholder who should be included in the processes is the engagement of the family that founded the company, which now has a role on the non-executive board. These individuals, who build the company from the ground up, need to be engaged in the processes in order for us to use their valuable knowledge in order to continue from where they left off when the firm was acquired from them in 2008. Certainly, their input can be put to better use if they are put into executive roles, rather than simply sitting on a non-executive board that has not been consulted enough in order to provide valuable input towards the advancement of the company.

Also, more decision-making powers should be given to Frank Jones, our General Manager. He has been involved in the business activities, but the final decisions have been left to our CEO, Alice Lien. Jones should be given the authority to act more quickly on his decisions, rather than waiting for approval to come from our CEO. This is part of an overall effort to ease the red tape surrounding many of the activities of the firm, which have been slowing it down when it comes to making decisions that can lead to expansion.

In order to convince relevant stakeholders that the proceeding project management plan should be adopted, the following steps should be taken:

  1. The IT team should be briefed on the need for a customer relations management system, or CRM. Their input as direct stakeholders should be taken into direct consideration prior to making any decisions regarding what steps to adopt and what features are or are not feasible to add into the resultant system.
  2. The family that owns the company should be convinced as to the value of the CRM. The benefits and drawbacks of the system should be clearly delineated in the plan presented to them.
  3. The CEO should be deferred to for final approval after the benefits and drawbacks have been presented to her in a full project charter.
  4. The financial benefits of CRM systems should be noted to appropriate stakeholders.
  5. Stakeholders should be advised as to the potential ROI and cost/benefit analysis involved in implementing a CRM system.

Stakeholder engagement will be balanced with addressing risks to the project.

Address Risks

Part A

  • Stakeholder engagement plan
  • List all the stakeholders which you believe are relevant to your project
  • Plot the stakeholder in a power/interest graph
  • Create a brief engagement strategy
  • Include key elements of the plan needed to manage/satisfy each stakeholder
  • Plot the stakeholders in a power/interest graph
  • Create a brief engagement strategy for each, including key elements of the plan needed to manage each stakeholder
  • Discuss risk from any stakeholder

Notes:

  • 3 sections
  • Each section is one artefact
  • Combined, these will create a project management plan
  • Focus on Tangle Corp
  • Can embellish on the fictional background information to support plan by creating useful company details to fill gaps
  • Marked for ability to critically analyze the role and function of each of the core project process groups (budget, scope, risk, schedule, resources, quality)

Part B

Project Scope Statement

Increasing Tangle’s market share will necessitate the absorption and integration on Tangle’s relatively recently purchased competitor. A way to do this seamlessly would be the introduction of a Customer Relations Management system, or CRM. The CRM would collect, analyze, integrate, and extrapolate from collected customer and client data in order to draw conclusions from trends and take action on the behalf of customers at a high level.

Justification

Tangle is a multinational manufacturing company servicing a myriad of consumer demographics. As such, their ability to quickly meet the needs of a changing market and economic decision making is significantly hampered by not only their lack of internal centralization, but also their lack of a cohesive internal database that allows them to make decisions when looking at high level data in the abstract.

A CRM system would increase their internal cohesiveness as everyone would be on the exact same page in terms of customer trends, economic conditions, and associated departmental outputs. The improved computer networks and associated multilingual capabilities involved in creating and installing a CRM would also confer competitive advantage upon Tangle in a global market.

CRM systems have numerous benefits. They enable companies to properly organize information. These may include consumer buying patterns, demographic trends, and economic indicators that can be checked through the aforementioned factors that may enable the organization to predict downturns and upswings through the assistance of an analyst.

A CRM also enhances communication and customer relations. Customers can interface with the CRM directly through online portals, that enable the automation of every day tasks and increased consumer confidence in the organization. When customers do need to call or interact with the organization directly, the CRM enables customer service agents to quickly interface with the customer’s profile and make requested changes accordingly. Again, this increases overall consumer trust and confidence.

Finally, a CRM increases overall organizational efficiency. Every department and employee has access to the same information, allowing them all to make centralized and organization wide changes on behalf of customers, which increases consumer trust in the organization’s competencies (Salesforce, 2019).

Product Scope Description

The scope of this project will involve the following:

Upgrading and installation of new computer hardware and networking capabilities. This will enable Tangle to properly integrate and run the new software and communications technologies that will be required in order to successfully run a cohesive CRM among an international organization.

Installation of improved VPN technologies in order to facilitate secure communication between all of Tangle’s associated offices in order to ensure a high degree of consumer trust and limited to no data loss.

Development, deployment, and testing of new CRM software and associated database technologies in order to limit data loss and ensure a seamless transition period.

Transfer and migration of records from existing systems to the new one with a period for testing and backup in order to minimize the possibility of data loss.

The creation of multilingual tools and training/acquisition of multilingual staff members.

The development of new policies and procedures in order to properly delineate what is acceptable use on the new systems and what is not.

Training users and staff prior to go live in order to ensure a seamless transition and minimal downtime/growing pains.

Training and assistance will be provided to IT staff in order to ensure a seamless transition and limited downtime.

A secure website interface will be developed in order to safely manage, take, and track user generated orders.

Mobile devices will be enabled and deployed in order to interface with the new CRM with associated secure mobile app development.

Previous CRM operations will then be fully migrated to the new system and a staggered go-live will take place with integration between the two systems slowly being phased out over the period of one month to ensure a seamless transition and limited possibility of downtime and associated data loss.

Acceptance Criteria

The project will be accepted as complete when the following conditions have been met to the satisfaction of the stakeholders:

  1. The CRM has been developed to stakeholder specifications and has all of the features listed in the project scope statement.
  2. The CRM program itself contains appropriate comments and documentation so that the IT team can seamlessly understand the work that was performed and make updates in the future/fix bugs as appropriate.
  3. Staff have been appropriately trained on the new system and have access to appropriate documentation to answer any questions they may have in the future.
  4. An app that allows mobile users to interface with the CRM securely has been developed and deployed.
  5. All computer, VPN, and communications systems have been developed and deployed in order to appropriately interface with the CRM with minimal chance of data loss.
  6. Multilingual competencies and policies/procedures have been developed.

Deliverables

The deliverables of this project will be as follows:

  1. An updated computer system, VPN, and communications network that will allow for successful integration and use of the new CRM system.
  2. Complete migration of old databases to the new system.
  3. The development and deployment of a secure mobile app that will allow employees to interface with the CRM remotely.
  4. The development and deployment of an online form that will enable end users to place, track, and pay for an order securely.
  5. Multilingual policies, procedures, and competencies that will allow Tangle to integrate a CRM capable of handling a global market.

Project Exclusions

The CRM that will be produced by this project is not meant to solve every problem at Tangle. It will not perform the following actions:

  1. It will not force departments at Tangle to communicate with one other.
  2. It will require an analyst to help in the decision making process, as the software will only collect and aggregate data – it will not draw conclusions about that data nor will it make decisions independently of the stakeholders.
  3. The software will not have machine learning or recommendation engine capabilities.
  4. It will not independently send information to various departments.
  5. It will not contact users on its own behalf unless directed to do so by a stakeholder or other high level user.

A CRM cannot be expected to solve internal issues within the organization. The expectations regarding what the CRM can do should be reasonably managed by the project manager without compromising stakeholder engagement. Stakeholders should have the overall benefits of the project thoroughly explained to them in order to maximize engagement.

One of the key ways of managing risks while preserving engagement is to discuss the potential ROI on the project. The standard calculation when it comes to a CRM is to assume $8.71 in return per every dollar invested in a CRM system (Brigham, n.d.).

An 771% return on investment is virtually unheard of in the business world, and this truly serves to underscore the ROI that a CRM can provide to relevant stakeholders.

A CRM will enable Tangle as a company to expand their overall market share through an associated expansion in efficiencies and consumer trust. By enabling better customer service and large scale data analysis, Tangle can eke out a competitive advantage where none existed before.

Additionally, a CRM will enable Tangle to finally take advantage of the acquisition of their largest competitor. While it would easily enable them to integrate and absorb their competitor, it also enables them to use their competitor as a corporate sockpuppet.

What this means is that consumers value having a choice, even if said choice is a complete illusion. Customers will readily choose the brand that they prefer even if both brands are owned by the same parent company.

Tangle can thus utilize the CRM to effectively target both sets of customers, and maximize their potential ROI on both the CRM itself and on their corporate acquisition.

Constraints

The CRM will be heavily limited in what it can achieve for Tangle in several key ways:

It will not fix the rampant communication problems at Tangle on an interpersonal level. It will only collect, aggregate, and display consumer data that will then be read by an analyst and disseminated appropriately.

Tangle will additionally be limited in this endeavor by its size and budget. Integrating the CRM in a manner acceptable to the stakeholders of the project may require a ground-up rebuild on Tangle’s entire IT infrastructure. The cost of this project may take up a significant portion of Tangle’s revenue, and borrowing may become a necessity.

Additionally, Tangle will not have access to its existing systems at times when the new system is undergoing the go-live process. This may result in data loss and financial loss through an inability to access consumer data.

Ultimately, the CRM will not be able to fix the deficient business practices and interpersonal communications strategies already identified within Tangle as an organization. These deficiencies will have to be corrected by the staff themselves with or without the help of an outside consultant in order to ensure Tangle’s success in the long run.

The CRM in this case is merely a tool that can be used to increase the market share of Tangle and its subsidiaries in the long term after these deficiencies have been duly corrected.

Assumptions

This project scope and associated Work Breakdown Structure assume a flawless project development cycle, integration, and go-live. This rarely happens in reality, and as such an additional 20 000 dollars has been included as a buffer fund.

According to Soltech, the project scope that has been included is appropriate. The average custom software development project can cost anywhere between 75 000 and 750 000 dollars. As such, the estimates that have been provided are modest in their nature and would return an industry-standard final product (Soltech, 2019).

Because the proposal put forth assumes a modest product, the assumptions of the marketing team and associated stakeholders should be managed appropriately.

Whether or not the stakeholder team requires more or fewer features and functionalities than have been put forth in this plan will dramatically effect the cost of this plan. The 20 00 dollar buffer that has been put forth is solely to effect contingencies within the current plan. Additional features and functionalities may raise the overall cost significantly, and the stakeholders should be appropriately prepared ahead of time for this potentiality.

The following work breakdown structure shows how tasks and associated funds will be divided over the course of this project.

  1. A total of 147000 dollars will be applied to technical development
  2. A total of 30 000 dollars will be applied to human resources endeavors.
  3. A total of 7000 dollars will be applied to data access and migration endeavors.

Project Milestones and Risk Management

In order to effectively integrate and develop this project, adherence to a strict milestones and risk management system should be performed.

The project cannot go forward if these milestones are not effectively met. Additionally, repeated delays can easily go through the buffer budget of 20 000 dollars that has been set forth due to research into standard going rates for the services highlighted above.

The following risks have a chance of de-railing the schedule put forth in the proceeding schedule and milestone Gantt chart:

  1. Delays in the development cycle that lead to an unacceptable loss of time and productivity, evaporating the budget and forcing Tangle to borrow in order to complete the project. This can be ameliorated by following an agile development strategy with strict adherence to the milestones put forth within the project charter.
  2. Data loss resulting from careless migration practices. The accepted development team will endeavor to make backups of the existing data as set forth in the project charter.
  3. Delays in staff and end user training leading to growing pains in the go live process. This will be ameliorated through the potential use of outside staff training consultants, and the development teams agreement to document the program and associated code appropriately so that the IT team and end user staff can answer their own questions and may any potential future upgrades easily and with little to no data loss.
  4. The mobile devices and associated end user web page not adhering to appropriate security practices. The chosen development team will agree to adhere to proper data security best practices when the contract is extended. Data security will be tested by the stakeholders prior to acceptance of the project.
  5. Market changes leading to a decrease in Tangle’s funds. This will be guarded against as best as is possible through responsible spending and adherence to the budget set forth in the work breakdown structure and project charter.

The proceeding Gantt chart breaks down the associated schedule and spending decisions that will need to be made:

References

How Much Does Custom Enterprise Software Cost? (2018, November 07). Retrieved from https://soltech.net/enterprise-software-cost/

ROI of CRM: What is CRM’s return on investment? | Nutshell CRM. (2018, December 20). Retrieved from https://www.nutshell.com/blog/roi-of-crm/

The 6 Biggest Benefits of CRM. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.salesforce.com/hub/crm/benefits-of-crm/

Computer Software Manufacturing Essay Sample

Introduction 

            Company location is a key to successful business operation and overall growth. In choosing a location to set up a company, several factors need to be taken into consideration including the workforce, tax incentives, customers and equipment needed in the manufacturing process among other strategic factors. Globalization has come with some important benefits especially the ability to easily transfer capital from one region to another and that gives companies that ability to operate almost everywhere. In this paper, the discussion explores the strategic importance of locating a computer software manufacturing company in three locations: Bangalore in India, San Francisco in the US and Nairobi in East Africa.

Discussion

            The Indian city of Bangalore is a hub for information technology companies in Indian just like Silicon Valley is the hub for information technology in San Francisco in the US. In fact, Bangalore is the new Silicon Valley of the world. Bangalore is an ideal location due to its tax incentives, cheap and skilled labor force. Bangalore emerged as computer software and a research and development subcontracting center back in 2012. As of now, it boasts of a skilled labor force due to the high literacy rate in India. Moreover, unlike in the US, the labor is cheap and there are tax havens and incentives by the Indian government to encourage foreign investment (Neelankavil 195). The downside to this strategy is that the logistics of setting up a hub in Bangalore may be initially costly.

The other strategic place to locate the company would be at the Silicon Valley in San Francisco in the US. Having been the parent site for the Information technology revolution in the world, the company would benefit from a very skilled and knowledgeable work force. For a company that is seeking to expand, the high quality of the manufactured software could be the competitive advantage that the company could anchor itself on. However, the cost of operation would be high due to the high cost of labor in the US as well as the absent tax havens by the government. Moreover, with the saturated US market, the company would not be able to enjoy high returns because the sales would be low and the operational costs being high.

The last viable location is Nairobi in Kenya, the most advanced country in East Africa that also serves as the entry into the African Market. Kenya has one of the literacy levels in the region and hence it has a knowledgeable and skilled work force to meet the production needs. The labor force would also come cheap as there are no minimum wage regulations in the country. The country also has tax incentives for foreign countries as it seeks to attract foreign investors and many other global multinationals such as Boeing have rushed there. On the downside, there are few laws governing intellectual property rights and therefore, the process of manufacturing the product must be kept a secret less the product is replicated into the market by other firms that may not have bothered to invest in research and development (Neelankavil 196). Moreover, with its virgin markets in this sector, the company can sell into the East African market and make some supernormal profits in the medium and short term.

Conclusion

            The paper has explored three distinct regions for the establishment of the company. Each of these locations offers some unique opportunities and challenges. As noted, most of the locations outside the US have the opportunity of cheap labor and tax incentives because they aim at attractive foreign firms into their countries. Moreover, these regions have the advantage of unsaturated markets and could potentially become important markets for the company to sell its products. However, they have the challenges of the quality of the labor and insufficient laws to prevent intellectual property thefts and other regulations against unfair competition. On the other hand, locating the company in the US would guarantee it of high skilled labor and an established industry but has the challenge of high operational costs due to lack of government incentives as well as the high cost of labor and a saturated market.

Work Cited

Neelankavil. Basics of International Business. New York, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2015. Print.

Essay on John F. Kennedy

Technical and Factual Information

This is a presidential library functioning as a museum for John F. Kennedy’s presidency and his administration. It, therefore, contains materials used and published during Kennedy’s reign and serves as a memorial for the president up to his assassination. The intent of this structure and its content is to serve the historical subject of preserving the memory of this president and his life while serving the country. The interior lobby is observable as an extension of this intent, and with its subject matter being in the depiction of a stage in history, it is possible to consider it as an attempt to preserve a moment in time, potentially just before the assassination. The lobby also acts as a communication of the memorabilia of an era captured through the design incorporating both artistic and functional values of an emotional experience from which the country found itself following Kennedy’s assassination.

Courtesy iStock

Formal Analysis

The lobby features a combination of figures, with each of these holding a particular memory about John F. Kennedy. The historical rendering of these objects is placed on alternating sides of the walkway, with objects spatially organized to illustrate space and time distribution of events. It features wood paneling on the walls, with chandeliers spatially distributed in similar organization as the cabinets containing the objects mentioned. These cabinets are all hand carved, wooden (dark oak color) chests with glass visors. Their representation is that of the older art that appealed to furniture at the time of their making. Carvings and modelings do not have any visible traces of the used tools on their surfaces, and are difficult to identify as handmade objects.

Volumetric Forms

The volumetric forms are cubic with pyramidal apices, with their carving being more traditional regarding geometric sculpturing. Their organization across the lobby is aligned to the direction of the passage, with the simplicity of spatial placement being in sync to the chandeliers and photographs on the walls. Line, as a property of each of these object, is used to illustrate the solid state of the objects, with none having open silhouettes. Therefore, with the elements seeming to align to the surface creation of volumetrically solid items, it is possible to appreciate its occupation of space and arrangement. Also, the consideration of the placement of the object within the space presents a similar closed, dense perspective. These figures displace space to a relatively high degree, with their visors reducing the point of view to a frontal intent. The lobby’s architectural plan, in general, pursues similar approaches, with the openness of its entire silhouette being limited only to the presence of these solid objects placed throughout its space. From a generalized perspective, the lobby’s design intent seems to be only viewed from the front or back for one to capture the entire concept of space and light.

Contrasting Colors

The usage of contrasting colors (the lobby’s lighted perspective to the darkened chests and the red carpet spanning the entire length) presents the viewer with an exaggerated perception of length. Color has been added using paint, for the walls, chests, and ceiling. From this approach, it is possible to express that the color possesses an inclination towards the presidential concept, with the inclusion of a red carpet, lighting apparatuses throughout the length. Also, the entire lobby seems to pursue the preservation of history with the inclusion of objects that are identifiable with Kennedy’s presence in the administration, with inclusions of pictures. The placement of historical objects may be outside the artist’s intent to portray the lobby in specific meaning, but their presence arguably presents an observer with the impression that the lobby contains emotionally invested content.

Light in Fusion

The usage of light in fusion with color is relevant to the design of the lobby, with the arrangement of chandeliers being alternated with the darkened wood for the chests. In this regard, the forced usage of artificial lighting in the lobby ensures a constant perspective from both the front and back views of the entire space. Texture is not used significantly within the entirety of the area, with most of the objects being smooth and not enhanced in composition. Therefore, the significance of the other aspects overshadows these intents and makes them less observable and relevant to the entire space.

Historical Experience

As a work of art, the lobby is, therefore, an expression to the visitor of a historical experience and an interface to relate to Kennedy’s legacy. Walking through this section allows one to perceive various facets of architectural intent enhanced by interior design and advancement of the concept by placement of objects. The relevance of the experience to understanding the artistic impression that this render makes on the visitor is in the emotional feeling of aged experiences from the period after the assassination of this president. It is, therefore, possible to say that the design is an expression of this historical reference on a communicative level.

Demographic Site Analysis

Population size alone is inadequate to determine the healthcare needs of a state, region or country. There is need to determine the demographics of the area to ascertain the exact healthcare needs of the population. These demographics can help in assessing the right healthcare products that can be introduced into a market (Pol & Thomas, 2012). Market analysis is a key aspect of product placement allowing companies to bring the right product that appeal to the population. The paper analyzes the demographic profile of Florida (a state with a unique population demographics) to provide insight to the healthcare needs of the state.

Courtesy iStock

The American Census Bureau estimated that Florida has a population of 20,612,439 people as of 2016, accounting for a 9.6 percent increase from the 2010 census. An estimated 5.4 percent are children under five years, 20.3 percent are people under 18 years, 54.9 percent are between 18-65 years and 19.4 percent are people over 65 years, as shown in Figure 1 below. In regard to gender, 51.1 percent of the Florida population is female while 48.9 percent are male (United States Census Bureau, 2017). A review of the racial demographics shows that 77.7 percent are Caucasian, 16.8 percent are African-American, and 2.8 percent are Asian (United States Census Bureau, 2017). The main health problem that Florida is facing is a large number of those who are overweight to obese. For instance, in Florida, 74 percent of the people between 18-65 years are overweight (Florida Department of Health, 2017).Two in every three adults is overweight indicating a high obesity rate. Diabetes, coronary heart diseases and hypertension have increased in the state, too. Likewise, in children, one in every three children is overweight.

There are 303 hospitals in the State of Florida. Out of these 213 of them are community hospitals, 90 are private hospitals and 93 are non-profit hospitals. The state has a 67,081-bed capacity with the majority of them (55,968) in the community hospitals. Private hospitals account for 19,518 while non-profit hospitals have 26,478 beds (Florida Health Association, 2013). There are 25 community hospitals and 27 psychiatric hospital closures in the States since 1995. Patient care volumes show that there have been 1.3 million outpatient surgeries and 671,787 inpatient surgeries. Patients have been discharged 2.6 million times. There are 8.7 ER visits each year and 11.8 million patient days. The most common causes of admission according to Florida Health Association (2013) are psychoses and digestive disorders, accounting for 204,975 and 116,537 cases each. This is followed by COPD and Heart failure at 65,505 and 62,774 admissions each year, respectively (Florida Health Association, 2013).

Demographic analysis shows that Florida has 19.4 percent of citizens over 65 years old. An estimated one in every three people over 65 years has a pre-existing condition. Additionally, 3,116,000 under 65 years also have pre-existing conditions in the state. It seems that there are a large number of people suffering from chronic conditions (Insurance Journal, 2016). The conditions that cause the largest number of admissions are heart failure and COPD. These chronic conditions seem to affect Florida more than most other states. Florida has the third highest population of people with pre-existing conditions in comparison with the other states, only following California and Texas (Insurance Journal, 2016).

Currently, healthcare institutions are well suited to deal with cases of heart failure, COPD (lung problems) and diabetes. However, these healthcare institutions are not offering solutions to the underlying problem of obesity. Considering 74 percent of the population is overweight, there is a need to deal with these issues to reduce the cases of life-threatening lifestyle diseases (Florida Health Association, 2013). The government has tried to create some lifestyle initiatives, and they are expected to decrease the percentage of overweight individuals to 65 percent in 2017 (Florida Health Association, 2013). However, this is still significantly high. It presents an opportunity to introduce Bariatric surgery as an alternative to those who are unable to lose weight naturally through diets and exercise. The treatment can first involve weight loss medication, and if this does not decrease the weight within a specified period, the patients can be given the option of Bariatric surgery.

References

Florida Department of Health. (2017, March 1). Florida Health Impact Report 2014-2015 . Retrieved from ISSUU: https://issuu.com/floridahealth/docs/impact_report_2014-2015

Florida Health Association. (2013, December 26). Facts & Stats: Hospitals. Retrieved from Florida Health Association: http://www.fha.org/facts.html

Insurance Journal. (2016, December 15). 52 Million Americans Under Age 65 Have Pre-Existing Health Conditions: Kaiser. Retrieved from Insurance Journal: http://www.insurancejournal.com/news/national/2016/12/15/435229.htm

Pol, L. G., & Thomas, R. K. (2012). The Demography of Health and Healthcare. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

United States Census Bureau. (2017, January 30). QuickFacts: Florida. Retrieved from United States Census Bureau: https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/table/PST045216/12

 

 

Character Sketch of Connie

By My Essay Writer

Connie is the type of girl that most guys dream about. She has been my neighbor for as long as I can remember, but only in the last few years have I started to notice just how beautiful she can be. The first time I saw Connie, she was walking with her mother and sister so that they could go out to the market. As I passed, I said good morning to her mother and she smiled at me. June, Connie’s sister, also smiled at me, but in a way that showed she thought of me as a little brother. Connie, on the other hand, outright ignored me. I could tell that she was angry at having to go out with her mom and sister. At first, I thought that she was annoyed at the boredom of the task, but then I got the feeling that she just did not want to be seen with her mom and sister. After all, her mother constantly points out how nice and kind June is while telling Connie that she should be more like June. I do not blame her for being so uptight around her family, but I have also been able to see how she is around school.

A Focus on Her Hair

Ever since Connie started to focus on her hair and make-up she has only wanted to be seen around other beautiful people like herself. She is usually at the center of the pack of beautiful girls who wander the middle of the hallways at school as though they owned the place. All the anger and annoyance just melts off her after her parents drop her off at the front door in the morning. She comes in, takes off a layer of clothes to be a little more revealing, and is swallowed by her crowd of best friends. She is at the center of the group with her high giggles and laughs, and it is no small wonder that I am not the only guy in school who cannot take their eyes off her.

Connie Has Changed

Everything about Connie changed a few weeks ago, though. We were off from school and I saw her on a Friday night at a burger joint. I could tell that she was not supposed to be there by the way she was hushing her friends and the fierceness in her eyes. I was sad to see her skulk off to an alley with an older guy and I sort of stomped off from being jealous. I did not see her for the rest of the night, but I could have sworn I heard her laugh somewhere before I went home for the night. The next time that I saw Connie, it was like someone had died. She was all smiles and flirting before that weekend, but that Connie has not been around lately. Connie looked just as beautiful as usual to me, but she did not seem to be her usual self. The air of happiness and the cloud of perfume and hair spray that followed her wherever she went was not there. Connie flashed her smile, but I saw it die away as soon as people stopped looking at her. The hallways were not filled with her laughter, and Connie’s group of friends seemed like planets that had been launched out of the orbit of their star as Connie outran them all between classes. I knew something was truly wrong when she sat at the empty lunch table next to mine, her eyes glazed as she stared off in the distance. I saw several friends attempt to speak to her, but she said something about not feeling good and left the cafeteria.

When Will Connie Return?

Connie has not yet returned to her former jovial self yet. I have not heard her laugh in earnest for some time, but I did hear June and Connie’s mother speaking to one another in their driveway. June said something about Connie finally maturing and growing up, but I do not see how growing up could change someone so much in the space of a few days. Connie and I were never friends, but she is one of those people who are so interesting to just watch because of her confidence and beauty. However, I do not think that the Connie I had come to admire even exists any longer.

Summary of Zapperi

By My Essay Writer

The article ‘Woman’s reappearance: rethinking the archive in contemporary art—feminist perspectives’ by Giovanna Zapperi provides information about how history has marginalized women. The introduction provides information about archived information and how it is interpreted to interpret the history of women in society. The article focuses on three pieces of artwork in order to achieve this process, and these are the works by Zoe Leonard and Cheryl Dunye, Renée Green, and Andrea Geyer that are concerned with feminist rewritings of history (Zapperi 23). The author states that the history of women is usually determined from ‘found footage, textual and visual documents, and sound assembled through montage’ (Zapperi 22).

Analysis of Three Pieces

The analysis of the three pieces of art work will help to reveal forms of repressed history in the manner in which they are presented. The author states that the analysis of the pieces of artwork will help to separate the archival material real history on women by distinguishing its historicity and the imagined potential (Zapperi 25). A majority of archived document have merged a constructive relationship between time and image that enables a favorable factor in the present day to be linked with one of the past. As a result, some of the history written about women might be repressed and does not tell the entirety of the story. There is an analysis of works by Loraux, Pollock and Georges Didi-Huberman in describing how archived material is used to understand history.

Works Cited

Zapperi, Giovanna. Woman’s reappearance: rethinking the archive in contemporary art—feminist perspectives. Feminist Review, 2013, 105: 21 – 47.

SpaceX Colonizing Mars

By My Essay Writer

Abstract

This research will mainly assess the system safety and risk decisions that the SpaceX will make in its bid to colonize mars. Both primary and secondary data sources will be instrumental in the research process. To assess the safety systems and risk decisions, the research will evaluate and review the space transportation systems, environmental challenges, potential loss of human life and the cost overruns that may be exhibited during the endeavor. SpaceX’s plans in establishing a colony at Mars will be outlined and its overall success will be judged from the assessment of experiences, successes, failures and technologies used to ensure system safety and risk decision factors. After assessing and evaluating information collected for the research, this paper will categorize the risk factors and system safety to ensure that the bid to colonize Mars is successful. Following the synthesis of data from various reliable sources, the research will accurately determine whether colonizing Mars would be an achievable endeavor for the company and if the risks associated are acceptable.

Courtesy Shutterstock

Assessing the System Safety and Risk Decisions of Spacex’s Goal to Colonize Mars

Statement of the Project

This individual report will assess the system safety and risk decisions of SpaceX’s goal to colonize mars to demonstrate skills at the 11 program outcomes. The completion of this project is aimed at attaining a Bachelor of Science in Aeronautics degree.

Introduction

Most recently, Elon Musk, the founder, CTO and CEO of SpaceX announced how he was going to use a monster rocket to transport people to Mars. He revealed his plan to create a human colony in Mars in a bid to create a multi-planetary species in human. Such an endeavor has never been attempted, thus most of the procedures and activities undertaken are expected to be dangerous and potentially fatal for participants. As a result, system safety and risk decisions are at the core of the project and are imperative to the successful colonization of Mars. As a result, the project will mainly assess the system safety and risk decisions of SpaceX’s goal to colonize Mars.

Historically, none of the public corporations have attempted to colonize Mars yet there is an indication that it could support life. SpaceX’s attempts have been successful in the past especially since they have managed to create an interplanetary transport system that could transport at least 100 individuals to Mars. Therefore, the dream will eventually become real, and without doubt human will colonize Mars. Though people may jump to the opportunity to become legitimate heroes in history, the need to assess the dangers that they will face is vivid, thus it is only necessary that safety system and risk decisions are examined to determine some of the potential risks expected.

On top of determining the dangers that are expected from such a foreign endeavor, extensive research is paramount to determining the success of future voyages and attempts to colonize space. Such a research is expected to revolutionize the aerospace industry since it could result in empirical research supporting the development of system safety and risk decision and management. The assessment of the risk decisions and safety system could set the direction for future research and perfection of technology set in place to facilitate such endeavors. As a result, it is crucial to the development of the aviation industry.

As for the scope of the research, the paper will start with an in-depth review of SpaceX’s full plan to colonize Mars. Hence, after an intensive hazard analysis the inherent weaknesses and potential risks posed by the plan that have not been explored further to determine whether they could be solved. Also, any other reliable data available on issues relating to the Interplanetary Transport System (ITS), environmental challenges and the potential loss of life will also be critically analyzed. Thus, the system safety and risk factors will be pointed out and examined to determine whether they could be solved. The main limitation to this research is the availability of information to the public domain since SpaceX is not readily willing to share all the information with its competitors.

While the research process is usually complicated, the most effective and obvious starting point is from the known. As a result, the development of the paper will mainly be based on SpaceX’s revelation of likely safety risks. Hence, a detailed literature review analyzing, evaluating and synthesizing data collected and used as a basis for further analysis to understand the safety system and risk decisions. The assessment will also apply the standards of the aviation industry and ensure compliance from the company. This assessment will determine the potential danger arising from the standards set. Consequently, the paper will finally assess the system safety and risk decisions associated with SpaceX’s goal to colonize Mars.

Program Outcomes to be Addressed

Critical Thinking

Critical thinking goes beyond a reciting of information researched. It involves the application of knowledge gained through research that develops a defined project in order to meet a specific outcome,” (ARAU, 2017, pp.13)

To demonstrate this PO, the research will involve an analysis of valid and reliable information that will form the basis of the discussion safety system and risk decisions involved. Thus information from various sources will be integrated and used to explain the issue at hand. Also, the learning objective will be demonstrated by the recommendation of the courses of action to be taken.

To successfully accomplish the PO objective the report will include information relating to the safety system and risk decision made by SpaceX, as well as the planning and management of hazards to colonize Mars.

Information used will be derived from credible sources including the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the System, Safety Society databases, the Corrective Action Review Board (CARB database, and the Royal Aeronautical Society database.

Quantitative Reasoning

“Quantitative reasoning is the utilization and application of quantitative concepts and methods in solving real world problems,” (IRAU, 2017, pp.14).

This PO will be demonstrated by the logical and coherent introduction of data and information relevant to the assessment of system safety and risk decisions. It is also demonstrated in the analysis of data supporting the project.

Information required to be analyzed include relevant historical data, safety data, and legal stipulations. Not all the data collected or analyzed has to be numerical though

Information used will be derived from credible sources including the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the System, Safety Society databases, the Corrective Action Review Board (CARB database, and the Royal Aeronautical Society database.

Information Literacy

“There must be a valid and reliable relationship established between any topic of discussion and the material used to support that discussion. This material is comprised of identifiable ‘primary’ sources and supported ‘secondary’ sources in order to logically, effectively and concisely qualify a position on the topic,” (IRAU, 2017, pp.15).

This skill will be demonstrated by the effective use of peer reviewed research to assess system safety and risk decisions to help achieve the goal. Also, the information used will be reliable and valid for the project and the reporting will conform to APA guidelines.

Basically, the information used to support this discussion will be academic in nature and directly connected to the topic of study.

Information used will be derived from credible sources including the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the System, Safety Society databases, the Corrective Action Review Board (CARB database, and the Royal Aeronautical Society database.

Communication

“In this context, communication is the application of thought into cogent written and oral presentation. Communication is the requisite expression of thought that successfully supports positions on a selected project using the standards identified in the appropriate documents… and that successfully conveys those positions to the intended audience” (ARAU, 2017, pp.16)..

To demonstrate the PO the project will demonstrate an accurate and flawless presentation of arguments easily understandable by different people. In addition, the correct use of APA guidelines, grammatical preciseness, appropriate referencing and in-text citations will also demonstrate the PO.

The presentation of information in the capstone project will demonstrate the effective use of communication skills.

Information used will be derived from credible sources including the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the System, Safety Society databases, the Corrective Action Review Board (CARB database, and the Royal Aeronautical Society database.

Scientific Literacy

Scientific literacy is the application of critical thinking to the general scientific evidence that is used to support a project,” (ICAU, 2017, pp.18).

This PO objective is demonstrated through the identification and application of factors in aeronautical science as they relate to system safety and risk decisions in the colonization of Mars.

Starting from the insights suggested in SpaceX’s plan to set up a permanent settlement in Mars, academic and scientific information from various sources will be used as well.

Information used will be derived from credible sources including the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the System, Safety Society databases, the Corrective Action Review Board (CARB database, and the Royal Aeronautical Society database along with SpaceX’s database.

Cultural Literacy

“Cultural literacy is the knowledge, understanding, and application of history, contribution, and perspectives of differing cultural groups to a specific project or the impact in those cultural groups of the topics to a specific project,” (ICAU, 2017, pp.19).

To demonstrate an understanding of this PO objective, the paper will evaluate some of the past and current culture for trends in aviation safety as they relate to system safety and risk decisions of the endeavor.

The information used to demonstrate this PO is also academic in nature; however, it will be demonstrating standards and knowledge of the way scientists think and operate as a community.

Information used will be derived from credible sources including the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the System, Safety Society databases, the Corrective Action Review Board (CARB) database, and the Royal Aeronautical Society database.

Lifelong Personal Growth

“Lifelong personal growth is a broad industry perspective of how an individual’s (not the student) personal experience could be demonstrated through the project,” (ICAU, 2017, pp.20).

This PO is demonstrated through the critique and evaluation of the value of professional development as it applies to the assessment of the system safety and risk decisions involved. This research project will demonstrate how specialists in aviation industries have managed to enrich the literature available through themselves not only for their own enrichment but for the development of the industry’s technology as well.

Exclusive interviews with individuals working within SpaceX could be vital to understanding how working in the field has led to their personal growth.

Since it is impossible to use academic sources, information used will be generated from SpaceX’s database and other media outlets including the Royal Aeronautical Society database.

Aviation/Aerospace/Aeronautical Science

“The Aeronautical Science PO is the application of critical thinking to the specific aeronautical scientific evidence (the physics of flight, flight operations, human factors, flight physiology, aircraft simulation, aviation safety and security, air traffic control, UAS, etc.) that is used to support a project,” (ARAU, 2017, pp.22).

This PO will be demonstrated by the artful problem solving skills demonstrated in the paper, as well as the application of aeronautical sciences and associated concepts as it relates to system safety and risk decisions arising in the colonization of Mars.

Once again, the information used to support this discussion will be academic in nature and directly connected to the topic of study.

Information used will be derived from credible sources including the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the System, Safety Society databases, the Corrective Action Review Board (CARB database, and the Royal Aeronautical Society database.

Aviation Legislation and Law

“the Aviation Legislation and Law PO is the application of critical thinking to the past, present, future local, state, federal and internal laws and regulations used to support a project,” (IRAU, 2017, pp.23).

The PO will be demonstrated by application or incorporation of legal considerations in the final document. The PO will also be demonstrated through the ability to analyze and apply the impact of all laws and regulations regarding system safety and risk decisions that would arise from SpaceX’s endeavor to colonize Mars.

To successfully accomplish the PO objective will include legal information relating to the safety system and risk decision made by SpaceX, as well as the planning and management of hazards to colonize Mars.

Information used will be derived from credible sources including the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the System, Safety Society databases, the Corrective Action Review Board (CARB database, and the Royal Aeronautical Society database.

Aviation Safety

“The Aviation Safety PO is the application of critical thinking to the specific topics of aviation safety and security that are used to support a project. Aviation Safety includes an analysis and evaluation of any and all safety and security concepts, techniques and procedures as they impact and relate to the project being compiled,” (ARAU, 2017, pp.24).

The PO will be demonstrated through the application of aviation safety and security programs, agencies and concepts as they relate to safety system and risk decision that may be involved.

Successful accomplishment of the PO objective the report will include information relating to aviation safety by assessing safety system and risk decision made by SpaceX, as well as the planning and management of hazards to colonize Mars.

Information used will be derived from credible sources including the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the System, Safety Society databases, the Corrective Action Review Board (CARB database, and the Royal Aeronautical Society database.

Aviation Management and Operation

“The Aviation Management and Operations PO is the application of critical thinking to the specific topics of management of aviation operations that are used to support a project,” (ERAU, 2017, p. 25).

To demonstrate this PO, the project will apply established aviation management techniques to the personnel and programs associated with all aviation operations in the assessment of system safety and risk decision likely to arise as SpaceX tries to colonize Mars.

To successfully accomplish the PO objective the report will include information relating to the safety system and risk decision made by SpaceX, as well as the planning and management of hazards to colonize Mars.

Information used will be derived from credible sources including the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the System, Safety Society databases, the Corrective Action Review Board (CARB database, and the Royal Aeronautical Society database

 

References

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. (2017). College of aeronautics: Undergraduate capstone policy guide. Retrieved from: https://erau.instructure.com/courses/6179/pages/coa-undergraduatecapstone-policy-guide?module_item_id=17735

 

 

 

Example of a Personal Statement

By My Essay Writer

Personal Statement

I have always been fascinated and interested in computers. I honestly admire the impact that these gadgets have had in our lives. I yearn and desire for a better understanding of how they work so that I can be able to utilize them better than the ‘ordinary person.’ This is my main reason for applying to the ALIGN Master of Computer Science program at the Northeastern University. I perceive this program to be the best fit for my goals due to the diversity of its courses. Most of its courses are suited for students with diverse educational and cultural backgrounds like me.

Courtesy iStock

I grew up in a family of scientists. My father was a lecturer, and as a little girl, he made me believe science was magic. He told me that if I became a serious scientist, I could discover new things that the world had not yet seen. After seeing my interest in computers, he encouraged me to pursue a career in computer science or computer engineering. While in China as a young student, I regularly read local and international computer science related websites and blogs. By the time I was finishing high school, I had learned C++ coding basics. This achievement, though little, acted to further fuel my passion for computers.

I had my first computer at the age of fifteen, and I used this rare privilege to learn more about computers. My extensive knowledge in computers earned me a slot as a computer teacher in some local community digital literacy institute. However, due to factors associated with the Chinese education system, I did not get the opportunity to pursue further education in computer science in my home country.

I came to the US to pursue a Bachelor of Arts in Mathematics at the University of Washington, Seattle. The main reason why I pursued a bachelor’s degree in Mathematics at the university is that mathematics forms the foundation for computer science. I knew that if my performance in all the major mathematical courses at the undergraduate level were outstanding, I would get a shot at pursuing computer science at the graduate level. So, I had plans of completing my undergraduate education in mathematics and later enrolling for my masters in computer science.

Additionally, I was aware of the fact that a  considerable amount of knowledge in computer science was needed as a qualification for a masters course in computer science, particularly in this case when I did not major in computer science in my undergraduate. Thus, I took the initiative and enrolled for computer science courses in China during my winter breaks. I also learned a lot of computer science concepts on my own due to my passion for computers. I took at least three courses in computer science in China during my holidays and performed really well. I took holidays not as a time to rest but as a time to lay a better foundation for my future. By the time I was completing my undergraduate studies at the University of Washington, I was conversant with all the key computer science concepts taught at the undergraduate level.

Regarding experiences in computer science, I can say that I have had enough to warrant a slot in the coveted MSC program at the North Western University. My primary source of experience has been Mass Mutual, a Seattle-based firm. Here, I served as an intern in financial analysis and website programming. I am still working at the company, and my main achievement has been the development of an internal console website for the company together with one of my teammates.

We developed the website from scratch with front end UI using HTML5, CSS3, JQuery, and back-end using Java, PHP, MVC, SQL, Mongo DB, and Spring. This is one of the achievements that I am proud of for it shows that I am capable. At Mass Mutual, I have also worked with numerous clients in website design. Additionally, I have been part of improvement teams charged with the responsibility of improving the company’s existing API to contribute to improving tracking of orders, logistics, and customer relations.

My experiences as a financial analysis intern are also worth noting because they exposed be to another field in computer science. After being trained by my supervisor, I was able to integrate my computer science knowledge into financial analysis. I coded formulas to be used in calculating safe points in stock trends. I also applied my vast computer science knowledge to aid forecasting and market analysis for the company and its clients.

Before joining Mass Mutual in April 2016, I had also served as a software development intern at CMIOT-Chongqing, Sichuan. Here, I had the opportunity to sign and record serial numbers of backstage logic codes for the company’s new QR code system that is based on the OneNet platform. This and other software tasks at this Chinese firm confounded my programming skills and made me a better programmer.

Similarly, I am a member of various online computer science geek sites where we interact and engage each other in coding challenges. We also mentor young aspiring programmers through tutorials and mentorship. It is on these platforms that I learned the use of tools such as Agile, Eclipse, Xcode, Spring, Linux, Windows, Macintosh, Photoshop, and Excel among others. I have found these online platforms to be a rich source of knowledge.

My computer science experiences had a significant impact on my education. They enabled me to propose and successfully work on various technology related topics as requirements for completion of my studies. I did write-ups on computer virus threats and the Y2K bug. My proposed graduate research project was on student’s perceptions on the utilization of P2P file sharing programs and their impact on music CD sales. These and other activities have taught me a lot on the need and strategies to running secure computer networks.

My short-term goal is to gain admission into the Master of Computer Science program so that I can build the skills and knowledge to enter into a career as a software application developer. After focusing on back-end development for a few years and utilizing my mathematical and data skills to create secure systems, I will move into front-end development. I will strive to use more creativity to build attractive UI design, interactive applications, and perhaps even contribute to the creation of a new language. Finally, after building my reputation, network, and skills to an expert level, I aspire to create a global software and application company that utilizes my linguistic and cultural knowledge of China and America.

The Influence of Weather in the Delta Airlines Flight 191 Crash

By My Essay Writer

Aircraft accidents are not the most common in the transport industry, but their incidence is not to be ignored. Every year, hundreds of people lose their lives and property worth millions of dollars is destroyed in aircraft accidents. There have been numerous passenger aircraft accidents in the U.S. aviation history, with some claiming up to three hundred lives. One factor that stands out in most aircraft accidents is the contribution made by weather conditions in most of these accidents. After a crash of Delta Air flight 191 on the 2nd of August 1985, investigations highlighted weather to be the major contributing factor though pilot error also played a significant role. The drafts of air associated with microbursts is a significant threat to planes as the crash of Delta Air flight 191 at the Dallas/Fort Worth International  Airport reveals.

Failed Landing

Caracena, Ortiz, and Augustine (1986) report that on August 2nd, 1985, 1805 hours Central daylight, a passenger plane belonging to Delta Airlines crashed during landing at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. This flight was a regular flight between California and Florida with an en-route stop at Dallas, Texas. It departed from Fort Lauderdale at 1510 hours Eastern Time on that fateful day with 152 passengers and 11 crew members on board, and with Los Angeles as the final destination. The flight was expected to be normal, though a weather forecast report had suggested a high possibility of the plane facing a storm with scattered rain shower. Rain showers and thunderstorms are considered to be common occurrences in aviation, and with stipulated procedures on how they are to be dealt with, the forecast given was not much of an impediment to this flight.

As Caracena et al. (1986) further write, a thunderstorm formed directly on the aircraft’s path while flying over Louisiana. The pilots decided to cautiously execute standard descent procedures with a slight alteration of the flight path. This change enabled the plane to navigate and successfully achieve the planned descent over Louisiana and approach Fort Worth International Airport for final descent. However, weather at the airport was also poor and an isolated thunderstorm formed in the plane’s path during final descent into the designated runway. Captain Connors and his co-pilot, first Officer Price, decided to continue descent through a thunderstorm that had formed in the airport’s vicinity. Unfortunately, the plane was caught in a microburst at an altitude of 1500 feet (460m). The remaining part of the descent into the designated runway was turbulent and ended with a fatal crash of the Delta Air flight 191.

According to the U.S. Department of Commerce (2005) report, the initial touchdown of the plane was some 1900 meters from the north end of runway 17L. The impact of this touchdown bounced the plane back into the air, and during the second touchdown, while crossing state Highway 114, the plane collided with a car and hit a light pole. This ignited its side wing fuel tank and triggered an explosion. The plane then skidded into the airfield where after hitting two water tanks it burst into flames. Though the emergency response was prompt, the number of fatalities was high with 136 passengers succumbing to injuries. Crash investigations by various agencies including the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) began immediately.

Findings of the Investigations

The primary focus of accident investigations is the determination of the causes of an accident. Results of an accidents investigation create the basis for prevention of similar accidents in the future. Determination the probable causes of aviation accidents enables aviation authorities to take steps towards the improvement of aviation safety. On page 80 of the Aircraft Accident Report NTSB/AAR-86/05, the probable cause of the Delta Flight 191 crash is given. The report details this cause as the decision taken by the pilot to execute a descent procedure through a cumulonimbus cloud where they had observed lightning, coupled with the air crew’s lack of adequate training on how to avoid and escape low-altitude wind shear. This culminated in the aircraft encountering a microburst-induced wind shear at low altitude and crashing shortly after (U.S. Department of Commerce, 2005). Simply put, the wind shear resulting from the storm microburst is the primary cause of the plane crash.

A downburst occurs in an area of significantly rain-cooled descending air. When this rapidly descending cold air hits the ground, it gets displaced in all directions, producing relatively strong winds (Golding, 2005). When a downburst affects an area of 4 kilometers or less, it is then referred to as a microburst. Golding (2005) further states that when a cumulonimbus cloud becomes mature, there is an occurrence of strong downdrafts which are related to precipitation in the form of hail or rain. At times these microbursts become too powerful with vertical wind speeds of up to 6,000 feet per minute (Golding, 2005). When a microburst hits the surface, the wind is displaced outwards mostly in a horizontal manner. This causes a considerable change in pressure that can be lethal to a plane at low altitude.

Downbursts (microbursts) are a hazard to low flying aircraft. They have caused numerous plane crashes during landing and takeoff. As an aircraft approaches a downburst, it will encounter a strong headwind that will lead to its increase in speed. At this point, the pilots are tempted to reduce engine power (Golding, 2005). As indicated on page 70 of the Aircraft Accident Report, when Flight 191 encountered the cumulonimbus cloud its speeds initially increased drastically from 150-173 KIAS, and the pilot was forced to retract the throttles (U.S. Department of Commerce, 2005). This is a dangerous move for as the plane maneuvers through the downburst the wind it encounters lowers its airspeed and lift.

A significant downward force and loss of speed can push a plane to the ground or cause massive instability. As indicated on page 71 of the Aircraft Accident Report, while cutting through the cloud, the plane experienced a fall in speed from 173 KIAS to 133 KIAS (U.S. Department of Commerce, 2005). It resulted in the loss of performance and height, and the pilot was forced to suddenly lift the plane’s nose to avoid a crash. The plane also experienced a sudden sideward gush that made it unstable. Survivors described the final seconds of the flight as turbulent and violent. Eventually, the pilots lost control of the plane, and a crash was inevitable (U.S. Department of Commerce, 2005).

Implications of the Crash

The crash of Flight 191 and the ensuing investigations had several impacts. The main effect was the development and incorporation of a system to detect and report wind shear in subsequent plane models. The investigation revealed that in the period between 1970 and 1985 alone, wind shear had resulted in a total of 18 aircraft accidents. Also, the communication protocol between air traffic control, air service, and pilots was enhanced. Communication between air control and other external institutions such as disaster preparedness units was also improved (U.S. Department of Commerce, 2005).

In conclusion, Delta Air Flight 191 crashed in the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport on the 2nd of August 1985 due to an encounter with a microburst. Microbursts cause wind shear that disrupts the normal performance of planes. The pilot in charge of the aircraft and his co-pilot acknowledged facing conditions that characterize a microburst. The rapid and intended gain and loss of speed by the plane as well as the sideward thrust are characteristic of the pressure changes that result from a microburst. The accident influenced the improvement of aviation communications systems, airport safety as well as plane safety. Subsequent planes were built to include a system to detect and alert pilots of wind shears.

 

References

Caracena, F., Ortiz, R., & Augustine, J. A. (1986). The crash of Delta Flight 191 at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport on 2 August 1985: Multiscale analysis of weather conditions. Washington, DC: U.S. Department Of Commerce.

Golding, W. (2005). Low-level windshear and its impact on airlines. Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research, 14(2), 35-45.

U.S. Department of Commerce. (2005). Aircraft accident report: Delta Airlines Lines Inc., Lockheed L-1011-385-1, N726DA Dallas/Fort Worth -International Airport, Texas August 2, 1985. Washington, DC: National Transportation Safety Board