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The focus of this chapter is to present the research methodology used in this study. The chapter also focuses on how the methodology guide the process of data collection, data analysis and theory development on diversity strategies and best practices in community colleges and universities. The chapter first introduces the purpose of the study and explores background information on grounded theory. It then the relevance of grounded theory methodology to this research. The chapter also examines data sources, sampling techniques, data collection, data analysis techniques and methodology limitations..

Purpose of Study
The purpose of this research is examine and analyze strategies and best practices used by community colleges and universities in advancing diversity issues in higher education. The paper further develops a grounded theory to explain higher education institution diversity initiatives and policies. This study will seek to answer the following research question:
What strategies and best practices do community colleges use in their efforts to improve diversity? 

Rationale for Methodology
To answer the research question posed above, the researcher relied on grounded theory methodology. Ground theory uses qualitative data collection and analysis techniques. It has been established as an appropriate and robust approach for carrying out qualitative research in which the purpose is to inductively generate theory in research (Brady & Loonam, 2010). Grounded theory enables a researcher to develop a theory that offers an explanation about the main concern of the population of which in this case population in higher education, the concern being diversity. It is a methodology developed by sociologists Glaser and Strauss in 1967 in order to describe a new qualitative method they used in their research. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Grounded theory methodology is used to generate theories, test and elaborate upon previous grounded theories and ongoing analysis of data (Creswell, 2003). It is mainly concerned about how the theory fits the facts, understanding the facts and generality control. The sociologists believed that the quality of a theory can be evaluated by the process by which the theory is constructed where as scientists based their evaluations on the ability to explain new data. They used this approach to discover categories, concepts and properties read from a textual database to evaluate their interrelatedness.
The main aim of grounded theory methodology is to unravel basic social processes. Grounded theory is idyllic for exploring essential social relationships and the behavior of groups where there has been diminutive exploration of the contextual factors that affect individual’s lives (Crooks, 2001). Grounded theory helps in executing the process so as to resolve the concern (Charmaz, 2006). It is a constant comparative analysis method which enables you to seek out and conceptualize the concealed social patterns and structures of your area of interest. It allows for new concepts and theories to emerge from gathered data and is mostly used in humanities and social science literature (Strauss, 2007).[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Contributions of grounded theory can be useful and valid even when they don’t make their way into the formal standards of higher learning as it is not entirely based on a wholly original or groundbreaking theory (Compton & Barrett, 2016). As long as it is substantive and meaningful data it can be used in the resolving of a specific human or social behavior within a selected population. The researcher constructs a theory through the analysis of data (Baron & Eisner, 2004). Strauss and Corbin captures the relevance of grounded theory to the exploration of social phenomena in their famous assertion that;
If someone wanted to know whether one drug is more effective than another, then a double blind clinical trial would be more appropriate than grounded theory study. However, if someone wanted to know what it was like to be a participant in a drug study .., then he or she might sensibly engage in a grounded theory project or some other type of qualitative study. (p. 40).

Grounded theory belongs to the realm of qualitative inquiry. Qualitative research is done under a different set of assumptions about the nature of truth and reality as compared to quantitative based research (Creswell, 1993). A qualitative research design was adopted for this particular research. The study relied on grounded theory to answer the questions developed above. Qualitative data was collected from diversity officers from community colleges that are members of the National Association of Diversity Officers in Higher Education (NADOHE).

Barritt (1986) argues that by increasing awareness and subsequently increasing discourse around experiences, a better understanding emerges. A theoretical perspective had to be formulated to improve current practice towards civic engagement in higher education. This would help institutional missions to clarify values and priorities as they set goals for the future. A grounded theory approach was used by researchers for Iranian students to study on the quality improvement in virtual higher education. The article seeks to explore the elements of quality and quality improvement including the process and specific actions associated with these elements, which contribute to enhancing quality in virtual higher education institutions. Since grounded theory is all about comparing facts a comparative analysis was implemented to construct a grounded theory model.

Researcher’s Role
In grounded theory research, the researcher’s role is to uncover something that is already there (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) . The concept of emergence of categories and of theory also plays an inventive role of the researcher. The researcher has to deliver a fully formed theory which is profoundly influenced by positivist, which is a theory that data can be acquired only through observation and experimentation.
This research adopts a constructivist grounded theory approach. Charmaz observed that “the researcher can move grounded theory methods further into the realm of interpretive social science consistent with a Blumarian  (1969) emphasis on meaning, without assuming the existence of unidimensional external reality” (Charmaz, p. 521). In a constructivist grounded theory, the role of the researcher is not to be just an observer but also a participant.

Population and Sample
Research participants were identified using researcher judgment. Diversity officers from five community colleges and five four-year universities were selected as participants. The diversity officers were from institution that won one of the National Association of Diversity Officers in Higher Education diversity awards. Information about participants and winners of NADOHE diversity awards was drawn from publications on the official website of NADOHE. NADOHE has 130 institutional members and serves as one of the few organization whose mission is to “serve as the preeminent voice for diversity officers” (n. d.). Thus, NADOHE is a critical source of research participants who are experts on diversity in higher education institutions. The research was also done under the guidance of the university’s ethical principles that are laid out in the human subject protection codes.

Sampling Procedures
Grounded theory mainly relies on theoretical sampling, also known as purposive sampling. With theoretical sampling, research participants are chosen using a criteria developed by the researcher. Initial findings are also critical to the creation of a sample. The process of early data collection highlights issues that need to be explored and provides the guidance for sampling and the development of theory.
According to Glaser and Strauss (1967) theoretical sampling is a process of data collection for generating theory whereby the analyst jointly collects codes and analyses his data  and decides what data to collect and where to find them in order to develop a theory as it emerges. It involves constant comparison and theoretical saturation and common procedures are used in the initial sampling.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Data collection techniques
According to Miles and Huberman (1994), data collection and analysis is done through alternating sequences. Alternating sequences are also described as iterative cycles of induction and deduction. Thus, data is collected and new findings are identified and it is from the new findings that further data is collected. Key variables critical for the research are not identified before the data collection process. They are a product of the data collection and analysis process. Variables are initiated by research participants and then adopted and used by the researcher. The cycle of data collection and analysis is broken when the researcher reaches the point of theoretical saturation. Theoretical saturation is the stage in research when the data collected is no longer new and the analysis is developing no new variables.

Creswell (1998) argued that the process of data collection for grounded theory is rigorous. According to Creswell (1998) grounded theory is done through “a series of interrelated activities aimed at gathering information to answer emerging question” (p. 110). Two key elements are needed for data collection which are the selection of relevant research participants and information gathering.

The main data collection technique used in this research the interview. Interview questions for grounded theory research are usually broad so as to give the participant enough room to discuss issues that are important to them. Through coding, key concepts are created and categories developing that are critical to the development of grounded theory. According to Charmaz (2006), coding constitutes the initial step in the data analysis process. Coding also enables the researcher to move from the statements of gathered in the interviewing process to abstracts critical in the interpretation of data and development of theory.

Most grounded theory research relies on open or line by line coding. Open coding allows the researcher to create new themes and concepts by listing all critical elements from the research transcripts. The researcher goes through an interview line and attach labels on every line. Line by line coding though tedious enable the researcher to create labels and interpret the data with fresh eyes and new assumptions. After focused coding, the researcher can then adopt selective coding.

Selective coding focuses on particular lines of an interview transcript. The next stage is the synthesization of categories developed in the open and selective coding phases. This phases known as axial coding is comprised of matching categories and subcategories together to create robust themes (Charmaz, 2006). Because of the rigidity of the axial coding process, it is often better to do theoretical coding and skip this phase. Theoretical coding helps in exploring the relationship between key categories.

Managing and Recording Data
Data management is viewed as a critical part of the research process. According to Weitzman (2000), the use of research and other advanced technology enhances the process of writing, editing, coding and storage of information. Software improves data management and reduces the amount of documents that a researcher has to keep. The utilization of Ms Office software and NVivo aids with the categorization and storage of important research data.

Software like NVivo is not only a data analysis tool but also useful for data management. Transcribed data collected from interviews of diversity officers is safely stored and later used for theory development. NVivo is a welcome development in the organization arranging and management of huge amounts of data derived from extensive interviews. As Weitzman (2000) observed, software can help with consistency and comprehensiveness. Thus, the research heavily relies on software for data management and analysis.

Data Analysis Procedures
Data collected from diversity officers through interviews, literature review  and institutional documents was analyzed using a three part coding and analysis procedure. The three part procedure included;

  1. Open coding – which is to find categories
  2. Axial coding – which is to find links between the themes or categories
  3. Selective coding –which is to find the core category

The three processes mentioned above are one of the main characteristics of grounded theory. The coding text is used to theorize the data collected and it is done in stages as illustrated below;

Stage Purpose
Codes Identify the attachments that allow the main points of the data to be gathered
Concepts Compilation of codes of comparable content that allows the data to be grouped
Categories Extensive groups of similar concepts that are used to generate a theory
Theory A compilation of categories that specify the subject of the research

Themes and categories developed in the coding process mentioned above are synthesized through a data analysis process of memo writing. The process of memo writing is the intermediate step between coding and the first draft of the research study. Memos are viewed as analytical thoughts developed during the coding process and cannot be treated as complete reviews and analysis of data. They also enable the documentation of the development of theory. Memos can also be considered as notes or researcher audit trail. They can be used in improving further interview questions and in the creation of meaning.

Use of Grounded Theory Methodology in this Study
Using the cyclical process that is at the center of theoretical sampling, this research used findings from early research to produce a new data collection process. The pilot study involved calling diversity officers from three colleges. The initial data collection phase was followed by more interviews. These were in-depth and developed the themes derived from the initial pilot study. A survey was also administered to colleges that are members of National Association of Diversity Officers in Higher Education. The data collection process was divided into three distinct stages – pilot study, interviews and survey.

Charmaz (2006) developed an extensive criteria for performing grounded theory studies. According to Charmaz (2006) grounded theory research need to have a combination of four elements; credibility, originality, resonance and usefulness. All these elements come with a number of questions.

  1. Are there strong links between gathered data and argument?
  2. Are data sufficient to merit claims
  3. Do categories offer a wide range of empirical observations?
  4. Has the research provided enough evidence for the researcher’s claims to allow the reader to form an independent assessment?


  1. Do the categories offer new insights?
  2. What is the social and theoretical significance of this work?
  3. How does grounded theory challenge, extend, refine current ideas, concepts and practices?


  1. Do categories portray fullness of the studied experience?
  2. Does the grounded theory make sense to the participants?
  3. Does analysis offer them deeper insights about their lives and worlds?


  1. Can the analysis spark further research in other substantive areas?
  2. How does the work contribute to knowledge?
  3. Does the analysis offer interpretations that people can use in their everyday lives/worlds?

(Charmaz, 2006, p. 182).
Despite the ability to develop new theory that help explain new phenomena, grounded theory comes with its own limitations. The main problem with grounded theory is that it is time consuming. The process of going through different phases of coding, the interviewing process and the constant developing of themes and categories eats into the researcher’s time. Qualitative researchers have development advanced software to deal with time issues but these softwares have not completely eliminated the long data collection and analysis process.

Another important element that limits the impact of grounded theory research is that it is subjective. The data collection and analysis process is only as good as the researcher. Because it allows subjectivity, grounded theory is prone to abuse by researchers lacking methodological skills and strength (Charmaz, 2006). [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Barritt, L. (1986). Human sciences and the human image. Phenomenology and
Pedagogy 4(3), 14-22.

Brady, M. & Loonam, J. (2010). Exploring the use of entity-relationship diagramming as a
technique to support grounded theory inquiry. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, 5(3), 224 – 237.

Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing Grounded Theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Compton, M. & Barrett, S. (2016). A bush with research: Teaching grounded theory in the art
and design classroom. Universal Journal of Educational Research 4(2), 335-348.

Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five
Traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Creswell, J. W. (1994). Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Glaser, B., & Strauss, A. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory. Chicago: Aldine.
Miles, M. B. & Huberman, M. A. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory
Procedures and Techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1994). Grounded theory methodology: An overview. In N.

Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research, (pp. 273-285).
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ward, K. (1998). Addressing academic culture: Service-learning, organizations, and faculty
work. In R. Rhoads, et al., (Eds.), Academic Service-Learning: A Pedagogy o f Action and Reflection. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Weitzman, E. A. (1990). Analyzing qualitative data with computer software. Health Services 
Research 34(5), 1241-1263.


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Why all workers in the US deserve equal pay for equal work

Equal pay for equal work is an aspect of labor rights that advocates for equal payment of employees giving an equal contribution at the workplace. While the two jobs need not be identical, they need to be substantially equal, meaning that the job content, as opposed to the job title, is what matters in determining the pay off two persons at the workplace. This theory is mostly discussed gender inequality of remuneration and sometimes about racial disparities as well. Opponents of equal pay for equal work argument usually dismiss it as a myth, stating that there many other factors to which the gap in the pay of the pay between genders can be attributed. Among the factors referred to by those against this argument is the difference in choice of careers, the fact that women are not primary breadwinners and the level of education among women. However, their argument doesn’t hold much water for some reasons.

Despite the fact that men and women tend to favor different career paths, which is caused by the fact that most girls are discouraged from a career in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. (which are usually some of the highest paying jobs in the US). They are encouraged to take up more nurturing careers like education, an adjustment of the disparity to factor in this reason still shows a noticeable gap, which is at an estimated 93 cents to 95 cents, which can vary considerably from one industry to the next (Renzulli, 2).[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Women across America come from a wide range of economic backgrounds, the majority of them being single mothers, primary income earners in houses with two income, or sole income earners in households where the father stays at home with the children. The Institute for Women’s Policy Research undertook research that revealed that fair pay for women would mean a 13.4 percent rise in the income for single women, a 17 percent increase in that of single mothers and a 6 percent rise in that of married women (Center for American Progress, 3).

The disparity in pay in the US is made worse by racial differences as not only do women earn less than men, black women earn less than both white men and women, and Hispanics earn even lesser than their black counterparts (Bibler, 1). This shows that not only is unequal pay a manifestation of intersectional discrimination, but also a fact that cannot be wished away by the arguments used by opponents of this theory.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Women deserve equal pay for equal work, as they have the same rights, needs, and responsibilities as men. Policymakers need to recognize that the women who are teachers, lawyers, drivers, secretaries are mothers, sisters, and daughters too and they deserve the compassion of being compensated fairly for their labor.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Works Cited

Bibler, Kathryn. “The Pay Gap Is Even Worse for Black Women, and Thatâ

Center for American Progress. “Six Reasons Why Equal Pay Is Still Important – Center for American Progress.” Homepage – Center for American Progress,

Renzulli, Kerri A. “How Much Women Earn Relative to Men in the Industries With the Biggest Wage Gap.”


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Question One
Legal formalism reinforces the concept of predictability while the legal realism negates the element. Under the legal formalism framework, judges are expected to align their decisions with current laws without any alterations. Legal formalism is augmented by the assumption that common law can only be progressive if it is made to follow a specific set of principles, which are drawn from a country’s legal authority. Essentially, the judge’s role in litigation cases was assumed to be solely the interpretation of the law and not analysis (Leitter, 1999). The extended decisions were, therefore, predictable and overlooked the need for the assessment of the environment and circumstances.

Alternatively, Legal realism alluded to the versatility of the prevailing laws. Essentially, the realists were aligned towards the notion that the life of the law was not subject to logic but rather experience. It does not assume a specific formula that is to be used by the judges in solving legal disputes. Instead, the realists believe in the pragmatic notion that environment and influence ought to play a hand in deciding the outcomes which are determined by the judge (Leitter, 1999). Predictability of law application in the formalist school encouraged the implementation of legal principles without change or revision while in the realist frame, it was viewed as a concept which demeaned the efficiency of the decisions which were engaged in the solving of litigation cases. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The difference between legal formalism and legal realism concerning predictability shifts the subject matter of analytical jurisprudence from the operation of the law to the changes in the conception of the laws which is intended to cater for creative activity. Essentially, the main theme in the argument is no longer aligned towards the determination of the legal framework in place but rather the changes that are extended to the law with regards to the prevailing environment and circumstance.

Question Two
No. It is not possible for a legal formalist to also be a positivist. Firstly, legal positivism emphasizes the notion that the existence and elements of the law are influenced by the prevailing social factors in the given society. Under this framework, the law cannot a priori exist on merit. Essentially, the law is not created as a mechanical policy to be applied in its entirety in every related case (Leitter, 1999). Formalism does not support such calls since it predicates that the application of the law should be whole and unrevised. The law should thus be applied to it without the assessment of the environmental and social factors. Essentially, positivism has no conceptual link to formalism as it aims to achieve a less predictable goal with regards to the application of the law. Formalists reflect a conservative stance with regards to the interpretation of the law while positivism, like realism, encourages the assessment of the prevailing social factors before a decision is engaged (Sebok, 1998). [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Question Three
Yes. It is possible for a legal realist to be a naturalist. This is because both the naturalist framework and realism metric are aligned towards the extension of a realistic picture of the law. Fundamentally, they are both committed to the assertion that all scientifically ratified principal must be empirically assessed to determine their efficiency in a given situation (Sebok, 1998). Based on this notion, a realist, like a naturalist, believes in the progression of philosophy. Therefore, a legal prescript is only viable if it can be structured to reflect the prevailing social and environmental factors. The application of the law should be a subject of versatility.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]


Leitter, B. (1999). Positivism, Formalism, Realism. Columbia Law Review, 5, 1138-1164.

Sebok, A. (1998). Legal Positivism in American Jurisprudence. New York: Cambridge University Press.


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Statement of Problem
Dental health insurance in the United States is not as prevalent as other health insurance covers for other medical and health conditions. A majority of Americans do not have dental health insurance, and this is a significant problem because they end up incurring significant costs when seeking dental services. The problem of having dental health insurance in the United States needs to be analyzed more closely because the standards of health care can only be improved if everybody is able to access dental services cheaply and easily (Wang, et al., 43).
The graph below shows the extent of dental insurance cover in the United States in terms of the Medicaid Reimbursement Rates.

Factors Contributing to the Problem
The biggest factor contributing to the general lack of dental insurance in the country is the high expense of obtaining a quality dental insurance cover. The high expense is the leading reason for the fact that most people have no dental insurance, instead choosing to pay for these costs any time they need dental health services. The health insurance covers available have quoted dental services very highly, and a majority of those with dental insurance accessing it as a result of their employment positions (Patil, et al., 2).[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Similarly, a general lack of awareness about the importance of dental health insurance contributes to the low rates of insurance covers. A majority of the people do not understand the importance of dental insurance, and this has an effect because the majority of the population ends up staying without dental insurance. The fact that there is a general lack of awareness of the importance of these insurance covers as well as an approach for minding dental health contributes to the ow prevalence of dental insurance in the U.S. (Cho 28).

The programmatic solutions that have been employed to handle the question of low dental insurance coverage in the United States is promoting public awareness programs. There are health institutions in different parts of the country that conduct public awareness campaigns where they communicate the importance of dental health insurance to the community (Patel, et al., 4). As a bonus, they enable people within specific areas to sign up for dental health insurance covers while providing information about the importance of these covers for their overall health. Similarly, policy strategies implemented in some states across the country seek to amend the law in favor of reducing health care costs, such as dental health insurance costs to allow more people to access these services.

The government has also made attempts in the past to standardize health care costs in the country, but this has not particularly affected an increase in dental insurance in the country (Raedel 15). A majority of dental health insurance coverages in the country have been issued by employers, meaning that the rest of the population must find a way of managing to acquire dental health insurance covers for themselves. The government has identified that subsidizing costs in the future as opposed to changing health care structures in the country will be the most effective strategy for helping more people acquire dental insurance covers. Most people ignore these insurance covers because they realize they will be unable to pay the insurance premiums over time (Rosen 724).

Effects of Interventions
The interventions that have been implemented have not been entirely successful because a majority of the population still remains without dental health insurance. The awareness campaigns through different neighborhoods usually manages to attract a handful of people willing to sign up for the dental health insurance covers available. The awareness campaigns, though, are effective because they have guaranteed availability of information on dental insurance locally (Blomstedt 131). Changes to the law with regard to health care services have not streamlined the dental insurance costs effectively, and this has resulted in the lack of success of the implemented strategies.

The interventions have not effectively handled the problems surrounding the costs of acquiring quality medical services. The fact that dental health care services still remain a big expense shows that the interventions used to help streamline the costs have not been entirely successful. Cost will remain a major hindrance to the population acquiring health insurance coverage, and this will be the key challenge to handle to improve the state of dental care in the country. The interventions that will be implemented in the future will have to deal with the high expense associated with acquiring quality dental health insurance.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

The most important recommendation that will change the state of dental health insurance in the United States is a reduction in health care related costs. More people will be able to access dental health insurance covers if the associating health care costs can be subsidized to reduce the overall expenditure for the consumer. It is possible for the government to take action by subsidizing associating health care costs so as to enable dental insurance services to be cheaper and more accessible to a majority of the population (Davis, et al., 66). The subsidizing of expenses will also enable health care institutions to offer their services at a cheaper rate, and this is bound to attract more interest in dental insurance covers.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

A policy change will also have to be implemented with regard to health care in the United States because it will be important to ensure that regulations exist to control the activities of insurance companies. In order for dental health insurance to become more affordable, the government will have to change some of the regulations that limit the number of people who can access dental insurance covers. Similarly, a culture change will also be important because it is necessary for each individual to understand the importance of dental health insurance in a culture where it is not considered to be very important. Spreading awareness such as through the distribution of fliers and setting up websites to provide information is an excellent recommendation to help increase dental health insurance coverage in a country where the expenses are quite high.

Works Cited

Blomstedt, Peter. Dental surgery in ancient Egypt. Journal of the History of Dentistry, 2013, 61 (3): 129–142.

Cho, In-Woo. Studies on People Who Work in the Field of Dentistry’s Awareness of Health Insurance Coverage for Smoking Cessation Treatment in Dentistry. Int J Clin Prev Dent2016;12(1):23-29.

Davis, Dustin M., et al. Acceptance and Use of Protective Stabilization Devices by Pediatric Dentistry Diplomates in the United States. Journal of Dentistry for Children, 2016, Volume 83, Number 2: 60-66.

Patel, Monica, et al. Parental Attitudes Toward Advanced Behavior Guidance Techniques Used in Pediatric Dentistry. Pediatric Dentistry, Volume 38, Number 1.

Patil, Anil, et al. Special Children Dental Health Care Needs…Are they Finance Proof? Journal of Down Syndrome & Chromosome Abnormalities, 2016, 2:2.

Raedel, Michael. Re-interventions after restoring teeth—Mining an insurance database. Journal of Dentistry Volume 57, 2017, Pages 14–19.

Rosen, Evan B. U.S. Dental School Deans’ Views on the Value of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Dentistry. Journal of Dental Education, 2016, vol. 80 no. 6: 721-725.

Wang, Shu-Li, et al. The evaluation of trustworthiness to identify health insurance fraud in dentistry. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, 2016, Volume 75, Pages 40–50.


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Remarks by the President at Memorial Service for Fallen Dallas Police Officers is a speech that was given by the former President of the United States, Barack Obama. He gave the speech to honor the five law enforcement officers from Dallas who were killed in a protest over lethal shootings by the police. He was speaking, trying to defuse the tensions that erupted at the time, concerning the killings (Ingraham, 2015). The main aim of his speech was to create unity among the people of America that were divided after the lethal shootings. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

“We’re here to honor the memory, and mourn the loss, of five fellow Americans — to grieve with their loved ones, to support this community, to pray for the wounded, and to try and find some meaning amidst our sorrow” (Ingraham, 2015). This is part of his speech and in this section; President Barack Obama was notifying the Americans that they need to find a way to live together peacefully. The shootings took place, and the protest was about the fact that black men in Minnesota and Louisiana were shot by the police officers. A gunman who stated that he was angry about the shootings fired on the Dallas officers. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

In this section of the speech, President Barack Obama was urging the Americans to find possible solutions and live in peace not treating each other based on whether they are black or white. When he stated that they should mourn but find some meaning in the sorrow, he meant that Americans should not let such killings happen again. The only way to finding a meaning according to President Obama was to lay aside differences so that chaos between blacks and whites may not arise again. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The key objective of  Obama’s speechwas to create unity among the American people that were divided after the lethal shootings. He intended for them to make efforts and live together as people of one nation, not taking into consideration their colors and races.

Ingraham, P. (2015). Fallen police officers honored at the memorial.


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Diversity Training Manual Section III: Gender in the Workplace

Gender is one of the most common forms of diversity in the modern workforce. As a result of the increasing number of women who are entering new areas of the workforce, it is necessary to ensure that the human resources managers as well as the company managers at every level are working to ensure parity and fairness in the workplace.

According to the Department of Labor, 57 percent of all women are active participants in the United States’ workforce (Women in the Labor Force, 2014). This is compared with 69 percent of all males who are in the workforce (Labor Force Participation Rate, 2016). While the number of men in the workforce has continued to decline, the rate of women joining the workforce has only increased in recent decades and is projected to keep climbing. In addition, women are appearing in more diverse roles within the workforce such as in business, law, management, and in areas of labor that have been typically male in the past such as industrial labor. Based on these statistics, it has never been more important to develop training outcomes for the inclusion of females in the workforce.

Applicability to Civil Rights
In keeping with the historical nature of the inclusivity of women in the workplace, it is necessary to examine the legal precedents set for non-discrimination of people in the workplace. One of the landmark cases with reference to discrimination is Griggs v. Duke Power. This case concerned African American workers being subjected to employment requirements for hiring that were not necessary for the duties that were expected to be performed in the course of the work. The Supreme Court of the United States heard the case and determined that such requirements outside of a job’s necessity amounted to willful discrimination. This case is highly applicable to the requirements of our company and the values that we seek to uphold due to the fact that women have to be considered for every position on the basis of their ability to complete the job that is required of them and not any other factors. The essence of the court case will serve as a guide for the handling of job assignments and promotions within the structure of the company. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Hiring in Our Workplace
There are several elements that have to be considered with regards to hiring women in our workplace. First and foremost, it is important to examine the role of the hiring human resources officer when hiring women. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the legislation that was developed with regards to discrimination in the years since has made it illegal to discriminate against women with regards to hiring practices. To keep in line with these ideals of fairness and non-discrimination, our company will outline the specific duties that are necessary for every job. By applying for the job, every individual, male or female, will agree that they have the skills that are deemed necessary the job whether it is writing in a logical fashion, using Microsoft Excel, or living upwards of 50 pounds of weight. This concept of universal requirements was envisioned in the Civil Rights Act and explained in modern texts such as Managing diversity: Toward a globally inclusive workplace. According to this book, implementing a requirement for a job before the interview process protects the company from litigation stemming from discrimination suits, even if the act was not purposeful (Barak, 2016, p. 152). Essentially, every position will have its needs outlined beforehand and introduced to prospective employees. If they are unable to meet the needs of the position, then they cannot be hired. Consequently, if it is revealed that they lied about their abilities to obtain the position, then they will be targeted for termination no matter their gender. The conversation of fairness and equality is one that every business must take seriously, and our company will strive to meet the needs of the increasingly diverse workplace population. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Applications to Our Company
How Do We Assign Jobs in the Workplace? 
One of the questions that often comes about is whether job requirements can be a basis for discrimination in the workplace. This is a very delicate area of law. One of the precedents that have been set for this can be found in the example of two men seeking to be hired as servers in a Hooters restaurant, a business that exclusively hires and employs female servers. The issue that arose in this case is whether discrimination exists in work places that have specific needs for their company’s success. The findings of the case were that there are Bona Fide Occupational Qualifications that exist in the workplace, and that having men hired in a place that has a primary clientele of heterosexual men would be detrimental to the company and would not equate with discrimination (Cavico & Mujtaba, 2016). However, our company does not face these same challenges.

When it comes to hiring women, the aforementioned concepts of having position-based requirements will be the primary defense against discrimination in our company. Yet, another element that is important to discuss is how every manager should delegate tasks. Since every individual does have certain talents and performs better than others in some areas, the fact is that there will be times when it will be necessary to place people on projects based upon their strengths or deny them projects based on their weaknesses. Since everyone is hired with the same minimum requirements, it is only their unique abilities that will separate them in the eyes of the company. Therefore, no person should be assigned a project or denied a project solely on the basis of their gender but upon the skills that they have demonstrated. Likewise, no person will be exempt from a required task of the position. However, accommodations and teamwork can be used in the case of unusual work conditions that arise and are not within the confines of typical work situations such as excessively heavy lifting. However, neither a man nor woman will be assigned such tasks based on gender, but upon ability, falling within the realm of inclusivity.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Joining the Team: Diversity Meetings
Being that our company, much like others, have been overwhelmingly male for some time, it is necessary to consider the fact that a meeting to discuss diversity will be necessary in some of our departments. According to Basford and Offerman (2014) there are several different ways to broach the topic of females being included in new workplaces. Basic meetings on sexual harassment and assurances that the company has work standards that are equal will be among the topics that are discussed in great detail. However, ongoing studies have shown that even with these policies of early meetings in place, women are often marginalized or feel as though they are being harassed at work. As a result, it is necessary to remind the men at work about how micro aggressions such as placing their hands on women or cornering them can be perceived negatively and reflect unwanted conduct in the company. In addition, the meetings will remind the individuals that the standards of work are not going to change with added team members, but that it is more important now to remain aware of differences and to celebrate diversity in the workplace.


Barak, M. E. M. (2016). Managing diversity: Toward a globally inclusive workplace. Sage          Publications.

Basford, T. E., Offermann, L. R., & Behrend, T. S. (2014). Do you see what I see? Perceptions    of gender microaggressions in the workplace. Psychology of Women Quarterly38(3),  340-349.

Cavico, F. J., & Mujtaba, B. G. (2016). The Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ) Defense in Employment Discrimination: A Narrow and Limited Justification   Exception. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly7(4), 15.

Griggs V. Duke Power Co. (2010, February 9).

Labor Force Participation Rates. (2016).

Women in the Labor Force. (2014).,


The null and alternative hypotheses are types of inferential statistics that we use to determine things about a population. We use the null hypothesis, or the “no-change” hypothesis, as the starting point of our inferential statistics; this hypothesis is the current reported condition of the population parameter we are examining (Durham College, 2011). The alternative hypothesis is another key starting point in inferential statistics, however it is based upon the result of the null hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis is the value of the population parameter, given the rejection of the null hypothesis (Durham College, 2011).

According to the Center of Disease Control and Prevention, adults should spend approximately 150 minutes per week exercising in some fashion, whether it be walking, weight-training, calisthenics, or any other form of exercise (CDC, 2015). In analyzing data for a population parameter, we wish to discover whether a factor or a treatment will influence the overall population (University of Wollongong Australia, 2013). We can determine this by conducting a research experiment that utilizes the available evidence and data to answer questions (University of Wollongong Australia, 2013). Given our data in Table 1, which describes the amount of time an individual spends working out over a period of five days, we want to determine “whether adults who get the recommended weekly amount of exercise are healthier” (as per the Center for Disease Control and Prevention). To answer this question, we can create null and alternative hypotheses to examine the patterns of the population parameters.

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Cardio 35 40 Rest 60 0
Weight 35 20 Rest 0 60

Table 1: The number of minutes one spends working out every day, over a period of 5 days.

If we treat the data in Table 1 as the starting sample data for our experiment, then we can utilize it as a basis to answer our proposed research question. To validate our research question, we must collect additional data that represents a larger portion of the population to create statistically significant facts.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay] In determining whether adults who get the recommended amount of exercise are healthier, we must create both the null and alternative hypotheses as the starting point of our research (University of Wollongong Australia, 2013). In creating the null hypothesis, we must ask which parameter results in no effects on the population; that is, which parameters exhibit zero change (University of Wollongong Australia, 2013). From our proposed research question, this would be equivalent to “adults who get the recommended amount of exercise are not healthier than those who do not”. Given that the alternative hypothesis results from the rejection of the null hypothesis, it would become “adults who get the recommended weekly amount of exercise are healthier than those who do not”. Our goal in answering our research question will be to reject the null hypothesis, and from this, accept the alternative hypothesis (University of Wollongong Australia, 2013). Once we have collected an adequate amount of data that rejects the null hypothesis, then we can accept the alternative hypothesis and prove our research question (University of Wollongong Australia, 2013). For our data to become significant, the rejection of the null hypothesis needs to be strong enough that it could not be explained by random fluctuations in data collection (Durham College, 2011).  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

This research question was chosen as an extension of the previously utilized sample data. The current data set answers the question of whether or not the particular individual gets enough exercise, however to expand this to the rest of the population, we must collect additional data to correlate this to overall health. This could be conducted by interviewing a series of individuals who get varying amounts of exercise, from zero minutes per week to over five hundred minutes per week, then asking them general questions about their overall health. If most of the healthiest individuals also get the most exercise, then we can reject our null hypothesis and accept our alternative hypothesis, thus proving our research question. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]


CDC. (2015, June 4). How much physical activity do adults need? Retrieved from CDC: Durham College. (2011, July 27). Statistics: The Null and Alternate Hypotheses. Retrieved from Student Academic Learning Services:

University of Wollongong Australia. (2013, August 12). 4.1 Using null and alternative hypotheses.Retrieved from University of Wollongong Australia:


Enhancing the use of SMART Tool for the Medical Clearance of Psychiatric Patient in the Emergence Department

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Emergency departments in medical facilities provide opportunities to the working staff to diagnose underlying problems and provide care for psychiatric patients. These patients are always not in the position to receive any other form of assessment, intervention or referral at that particular time and it is the responsibility of the health worker to come up with the best approaches for helping their patients. However, it is disturbing that these emergency departments are always crowded and patients are forced to wait for long before they are attended to or admitted to wards. There is therefore need to emphasize the utilization of the SMART Tool in order to enhance efficiency and reduce delays/waiting time by patients at the facility. The following is basically an outline on ways that will be used in ensuring that the SMART Tool is utilized to the maximum by healthcare providers at the emergency department.

Enhancing the use of SMART Tool for the Medical Clearance of Psychiatric Patient in the Emergence Department

It has been noted that emergency departments in hospitals are the most visited units in the hospital for cases of mental illnesses. Studies show that from 1992 to 2000 mental health visits had increased by about 15%. During this period 5.5 % of these visits were attributed to primary mental health issues. Cases for psychiatric conditions were also much higher than those for non-psychiatric conditions (Rhodes et al., 2008). Most of these increases in the number of visits to emergency departments have been attributed to barriers that have been put into place that restrict outpatient mental health care (Rhodes et al., 2008).

A decline in the number of psychiatric patients in California lead to closure of three state psychiatric hospitals in the 1960s extending to the early 1970s. The result was an introduction of outpatient services for mental related conditions. The move taken by the state government had not involved consultation with other interested parties. It ended up resulting into some of these psychotic patients becoming criminalized in 1972 (Sierra Sacramento Valley Medical Society, 2016).

Sutter Medical Center Emergence Department is also faced with this issue of increased visits by patients with mental problems. However, there are no better strategies on handling this increasing number of visiting patients. This has resulted into problems with clearing patients resulting into an overcrowded emergency department. There is no use of SMART protocol during provision of care to these patients, something that impacts negatively to the quality of health care offered.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Statement of the Problem
The SMART Protocol is a tool that enables the care team to assess psychiatric patients in the ED so that they can get the appropriate care and transfer to mental health facility. However, it has come to notice that doctors and nurses working for Sutter Medical Center Emergence Department (ED) are not putting into use the SMART Protocol for medical clearance of psychiatric patients. There are also no current policies put into place to track and monitor the use of SMART protocol at Sutter Medical Center Emergence Department (ED) in Sacramento. This has resulted into overcrowding of the emergency department by patients seeking medical and psychiatric services.

At Sutter Medical Center Emergence Department, the number of mental patients visiting the emergency department has been noted to be on the rise. However, medical staff at this facility has not adopted the use of SMART protocol and so there is extended wait time for both patients experiencing both medical and psychiatric issues. Patients requiring mental health care are boarded in the ED for too long with lower quality care that results in the higher risks of adverse outcomes.

Not employing SMART protocol at Sutter Medical Center Emergence Department has resulted into many avoidable problems at the facility. SMART protocol is known to help care providers in provision of timely and specialized care the different health demands by patients. Mental emergency department should therefore put into practice SMART protocol for faster and better service delivery to their patients and clients. There is therefore the need for adoption and enhancement of use of SMART protocol at Sutter Medical Center Emergence Department to enhance performance.

Goals and Objectives
This project is aimed at promoting the utilization of SMART protocol for medical clearance of psychotic patients and those with any mental health issues at Sutter Medical Center Emergence Department. The project targets boosting utilization of SMART protocol for medical clearance of patients with mental health problems to about 90 % by March 2017. Increased utilization will automatically result into provision of appropriate and improved emergency care to these patients. It will also reduce complaints from patients about waiting time.

Literature Review
Psychiatric patients visiting the emergency department comprise of many mental conditions. Some come with mood disorders, others with mental disorders like schizophrenia while some may be referred to the facility by different authorities. Most of these police referrals involve more male members of the society as opposed to the female and most cases of police referrals are assaultive and comprise of dangerous behavior towards other members of the society. Police department has been known for taking part greatly in some of these referrals. In most countries in the world the police are known for being the first people to be conducted in case one develops a mental disorder. There is therefore need for training on better ways of dealing with or handling these patients (Telle et al., 2006). [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Studies have shown that psychiatric patients who seek emergency services are different in terms of demography when compared to the rest of the population (Shield et al., 2016). Psychiatric patients seeking emergency medical attention were found to comprise of more men than women. Also, World Health Organization has high scores for psychiatric patients than the other population in terms of assessment and disability assessment. There is therefore need for collection of data on functioning and disability for the psychiatric department. There is also need to have accurate alignment of patients to correct intensity of services offered (Shield et al., 2016).

The emergency department works in collaboration with psychiatric wards in the process of provision of care to its clients. Individuals requiring hospitalization are sent to psychiatric wards after going through the emergency department. There is a possibility of delays during this process of transfer and admission to psychiatric wards if the emergency department is overcrowded. Waiting time before admission to psychiatric wards was found to be 17.9 hours at the emergency department of Queen Elizabeth Hospital situated in South Australia. Waiting time during the weekend was greater than during week days. It was also noted that psychiatric discharges were fewer over the weekends than during weekdays (Bastiampillai et al., 2012). From the study, it was concluded that the long waiting times during the weekends was attributed to fewer discharges from the wards.

Studies have shown that the main reason for psychiatric inpatient admissions were cases of delirium. Admitting psychogeriatric patients into inpatient section of a psychiatric unit is based on several indicators. However, currently there is clear outline of guidelines on what to consider before making decisions on whether to recommend the patient for impatient or outpatient treatment (Tang et al., 2014). Several factors contribute towards decision making on whether to refer a patient for inpatient or outpatient treatment at a psychiatric unit. It is the interactions between this factors that determines the decisions made. Based on these factors, doctors and staff emergency rooms can then make dispositional decisions.

Several predisposing factors have been associated with inpatient admission of psychiatric patients who pay visits to emergency departments. In a study done in some emergency departments of urban areas in the United States showed that ageing was one of the predisposing factors. Arrival by emergency transport coupled by longer length of stay increased the likelihood of hospitalization (Hamilton et al., 2016). Need factors also contributed greatly to the probability of one’s hospitalization. For instance, if one exhibits impulsive control disorder or any diagnosis or history of suicidal ideation, there is an increased the probability of hospitalization and admission for impatient treatment (Hepp et al., 2004).

The older population is known for increased risks when it comes to any health condition leave alone psychiatric conditions. The health care by the older population is unique in cases of disasters. Thus it means that the older population is a more vulnerable group as compared to other groups. When coming up with or implementing any project in the emergency department consideration should be given to the geriatric population. It has been found out that shelter put up for disaster always fail to accommodate the needs of this ageing population. The same is reflected to emergency departments in health facilities. To worsen the situation, the older population is on the rise hence the need for quicker interventions or plans that will help in handling them (Wilber et al., 2006).

Lengths of stay and boarding for psychiatric patients have been subjects of concerns in emergency departments. Overcrowding and the problem of long waiting time in emergency departments have led to studies to examine connection between lengths of stay and boarding in the emergency departments. Such a study was done at Florida emergency departments. In the study it was established that longer length of stay was endemic of psychotic patients at the emergency department. The mean length of stay was found to be 7.77 hours while anxiety related disorder was present in most cases of complaints presented by these patients. Ironically, anxiety related disorders had the lowest mean when it came to length of stay at the emergency department (Smith et al., 2016).

Several mechanisms have been put up to help in combating these problems of long waits in the emergency department across various countries. Iran, for instance, has come up with the use of queuing theory and simulation modeling (Askarian et al., 2014). In some developed countries, the queuing theory is highly appreciated though there are some other interventions put into place to cushion the problem of staying long in queues. For instance, a study conducted in some of the hospitals in Iran revealed some crucial findings as explored below.

Findings obtained from a cross-sectional study conducted in hospitals with emergency departments in Iran show that about 4088 patients had left the emergency department within the thirty days of study. It also indicated that doubling of bed capacity that was done in hospitals helped greatly in reducing number of patients waiting to the discharged at the wards. While 1238 patients were still on the queue waiting, the number of beds in the ward was doubled from 81 to 179 something that helped reduce the number of waiting patients to almost 500 (Askarian et al., 2014).

Smooth transitions from the emergency department to the bed section in the ward is one of the objectives when coming up with or implementing plans to curb the problem of overcrowded emergency departments. Reduction in bed number in the emergency department has been found to reduce length of stay of psychiatric patients. It also reduces the number of referrals received from the community. Waiting times at the emergency department before transfer or admission to the bed section is also reduced through this. A study was therefore carried out on the impact of closure of psychiatry inpatient services through reduction of bed numbers.

The study was done at Cramond Clinic of Queen Elizabeth Hospital and involved comparing change in services within three years. 2006-2007 was the baseline period since bed reduction was not yet been done. 2007-2008 was the observation period since bed reduction had occurred and 2008-2009 was the intervention year. Findings from the study indicated that reducing the number of beds while adopting another new care procedure or intervention would result into better care provision. As observed in this study, the reduction in number of beds was catered for improved and better training to the staff to ensure efficiency (Bastiampillai et al., 2012).

Australia has not been spared with this problem of long waiting times and overcrowding at the emergency department. There has been an outcry and discussions on the need to come up with measures aimed at reducing time spent waiting in the emergency department. From a study that was conducted on the impact daily discharge in the psychiatric department had on the emergency department, it was found that the number of patients discharged during weekends was fewer than those discharged during weekdays. The study involved retrospective analysis of patient flow at an emergency department at Queen Elizabeth Hospital in terms of number of patients waiting for admission and those discharged (Bastiampillai et al., 2012).

Time spent in the emergency department by patients waiting to be admitted to the psychiatry ward during was found to be 17.9 hours a figure higher than the targeted 4 hours. Waiting times before admission on weekdays were found to be less than waiting times during weekends. This inverse correlation meant that waiting time reduces with an increase in the number of those discharged. It was also found that patients requiring emergency care were more on weekdays than during weekends something that was attributed to work practices in terms of psychiatric evaluation at their places of work (Bastiampillai et al., 2012).

Computer information systems prove very essential in times of dilemmas and emergencies in organization and even hospitals (There is therefore need for emergency departments to install this computerized technology to allow for easy information linkages and performance of complicated operations. California adopted one of this programs which they termed as CHIPS that was started in 1965 with an aim of satisfying the needs of health facilities planning (Buntin et al., 2011).

Stakeholders and Collaborative Partners
Implementation of this project will largely depend on the collaboration of emergency department staff members and other staff, such as those from the psychiatric evaluation department, at the facility. The crucial stakeholders for this project include Director and Chief Executive Officer of Mental Health Care Services, Directors of the Emergency Department, Emergency Department Management Supervisor and Psychiatric Evaluation Team (PET) Manager. Established collaboration among stakeholders and involved staffs will the determinant and a boost for the project’s success.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Methodologies that will be employed in this project will include recommendations by the Sierra Sacramento Valley Medical Society (2015). This would include establishment of dedicated psychiatry emergency services which will ensure for timeliness in care provision for these patients.
In order to enhance coordination in the process of patients in the emergency department, there will be need for installation of electronic technology to allow for exchange of health information among the staff members. Clearance process in all the other emergency departments will also be standardized to ensure quicker and timely patient transfer among departments and treatment centers.

SWOT analysis during the progress of the project will also be performed. This will involve analysis of the strengths, weakness and other variables to help in anticipating, improving and supporting outcomes. EPIC and self- administered questionnaires will be fundamental for information gathering during the study.

Evaluation on the progress and success will be achieved through making comparisons on baseline data with interim and final data. This project being set to run till March of 2017, will allow for incorporation of other benchmarks in evaluating the frequency and quality of improvements of SMART protocol. Service delivery during this period will also be evaluated. Pre and post tests will also be used to test the impact the utilization of SMART protocol has brought on quality of health care to these patients.

Both qualitative and quantitative tools of evaluation will be used during the evaluation. Health care being an intangible commodity, surveys, observations, interviews and case studies will be applied to determine client’s views on service delivery after and before utilization of SMART protocol.

Maintain collaboration between stake holders and staff from the emergency department and the psychiatric evaluation department. . Similarly, collection and review of data should be ongoing to ensure sustainability. SWOT analysis should go on throughout the process to allow for improvement in outcomes. There is need for training on the importance of SMART protocol among the staff members at the center.

Solution to the problem of overcrowding and long waiting times at Sutter Medical Center Emergence Department could be achieved through the utilization of SMART protocol. With no staff member employing the use of SMART protocol, planning and timing of events during events of patient care becomes a problem. There is also no coordination between the emergency department and the psychiatric wards making patients wait for a long time before getting admitted into the ward. Therefore, if the implementation of this project comes to pass before March 2017 there will be many improvements at Sutter Medical Center Emergence Department.


Askarian, M., Hesami, S. A., Kharazmi, E., Hatam, N., Haghighinejad, H. A., & Danaei, M. (2016). Evaluation of the Patients’ Queue Status at Emergency Department of Nemazee Hospital and How to Decrease It, 2014. GJHS Global Journal of Health Science, 9(2), 230.

Bastiampillai, T., Schrader, G., Dhillon, R., Strobel, J., & Bidargaddi, N. (2012). Impact of a psychiatric unit’s daily discharge rates on emergency department flow. Australasian Psychiatry,20(2), 117-120.

Bastiampillai, T., Schrader, G., Dhillon, R., Strobel, J., & Bidargaddi, N. (2012, April 23). Implications of bed reduction in an acute psychiatric service. The Medical Journal of Australia.

Sierra Sacramento Valley Medical Society. (2016). Crisis in the Emergency Department:  Removing Barriers to Timely and Appropriate Mental Health Treatment.

Hamilton, J. E., Desai, P. V., Hoot, N. R., Gearing, R. E., Jeong, S., Meyer, T. D., . . . Begley, C. E. (2016). Factors Associated With the Likelihood of Hospitalization Following Emergency Department Visits for Behavioral Health Conditions. Academic Emergency Medicine, 23(11), 1257-1266.

Korn, C. S., Currier, G. W., & Henderson, S. O. (2000). “medical clearance” of psychiatric patients without medical complaints in the Emergency Department. The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 18(2), 173-176.

Rhodes, K. V. (2008). Mood Disorders in the Emergency Department: The Challenge of Linking Patients to Appropriate Services. General Hospital Psychiatry30(1), 1–3.

Shield, K. D., Kurdyak, P., Shuper, P. A., & Rehm, J. (2016). Disability and Functioning of Patients Who Use Psychiatric Hospital Emergency Services. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. doi:10.4088/jcp.15m10082

Smith, J. L., Nadai, A. S., Storch, E. A., Langland-Orban, B., Pracht, E., & Petrila, J. (2016). Correlates of Length of Stay and Boarding in Florida Emergency Departments for Patients With Psychiatric Diagnoses. Psychiatric Services, 67(11), 1169-1174.

Tang, S., Patel, P., Khubchandani, J., & Grossberg, G. T. (2014). The Psychogeriatric Patient in the Emergency Room: Focus on Management and Disposition. ISRN Psychiatry2014, 413572.

Wilber, S. T., Gerson, L. W., Terrell, K. M., Carpenter, C. R., Shah, M. N., Heard, K., & Hwang, U. (2006). Geriatric Emergency Medicine and the 2006 Institute of Medicine Reports from the Committee on the Future of Emergency Care in the U.S. Health System. Acad Emergency Med Academic Emergency Medicine, 13(12), 1345-1351.

Buntin, M. B., Burke, M. F., Hoaglin, M. C., & Blumenthal, D. (2011). The benefits of health
information technology: a review of the recent literature shows predominantly positive results. Health affairs30(3), 464-471.

Teller, J. L., Munetz, M. R., Gil, K. M., & Ritter, C. (2006). Crisis intervention team training for
police officers responding to mental disturbance calls. Psychiatric Services.

Hepp, U., Moergeli, H., Trier, S. N., Milos, G., & Schnyder, U. (2004). Attempted suicide: factors leading to hospitalization. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry49(11), 736-742.


Sample by My Essay Writer

Claude Lorain was an Italian artist born in 1604 and is known for making several landscape paintings. He was famous for doing great artistic works that were recognized in Italy and other countries. One of his biggest achievements is being credited for doing the first modern abstract works (Lorrain n.p). On the other hand, Dong Qichang was a Chinese painter born in 1555. He was born a scholarly but poor family and was known to use his paintings to demonstrate how art could help people enhance their voice. He came up with an original artistic output and used that creativity to show project the path forward in the field of art.

The works of these two artists have specific characteristics that make them widely recognized. With Qichang, painting was mainly a way through which he could demonstrate the nature of the Chinese society. Even his naming of the landscape paintings demonstrates the nature of the Chinese society. Examples of his painting titles include Invitation to Reclusion at Jingxi, Landscape in the style of MiFu, and Landscape and Poems among many others (The Metropolitan Museum of Art). Lorrain, on the other hand, based his paintings on different areas in which he visited. His pieces included The Pastoral Landscape the Roman Campagna ca 1639, the Pastoral Landscape with a view of Lake Albano and Castel Gandolfo, 1639, and the Imaginary View of Tivoli 1642 (Lorrain n.p)[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

These artists also demonstrate great contrast based on their styles and nature of paintings. They also lived in different times and used their art to demonstrate their feelings about society. Another common factor with these two artists is they made many landscape paintings. In addition, most of their paintings were very popular and influenced society at the national level.

With Lorrain Claude, art was a representation of an idealized concept of his theme. Most of his works were imaginary, and that is one of the reasons why he is considered very creative. The composition of his landscape arts depends highly on the dimensions of the used canvas. This is because they contain different features and planes (Visual Artists n.p). These include the nature of the buildings and the group of trees. On the other hand, Dong Qichang’s style was characterized by awkward use of materials. This includes the use of simple shapes such as floating in the air, illogical, tilted, and disconnection from the other. One of the outstanding features about him was that he manifested his ideas and emotions through the landscape art, but then he always used a complex brushwork. While people could easily understand the paintings, they could never get a better understanding of the brushwork. To be specific, his brushwork always combined Dong Yuan draping strokes, Wang Wei ink washes, Ni Zan ink tones, and Mi family dots (Liu n.p). In addition, he mastered the use of a winter landscape, which he borrowed from Jing Hao.

When comparing the legacies of Lorrain and Qichang, there is a visible difference. Lorrain only had a single pupil (Angeluccio). With Qichang, he was given the role of teaching the entire dynasty and this involved several pupils. Angeluccio died at a young age but still managed to make an impact during his lifetime. Even though he only had one student who died at an early age, Claude still managed to produce influential works in different parts of Europe. These include the English school from the time of Richard Wilson (1714-1782) to that of the great JMW Turner 1775-1851 (Visual Artists). This shows how good he was in his artistic works. With Qichang, he had many students in different dynasties. Initially, he was a teacher under the Ming dynasty in which he had the influential position of showing people different forms of landscape painting. The Ming dynasty understood the importance of art, and that shows why Qichang was very influential (Liu). When the Manchurians took over the Ming dynasty, they also admitted the important role of Qichang’s work and chose to retain his role as a teacher. This means that his work influences many people both directly and indirectly. His legacy managed to survive the Ming Dynasty and that of the Manchurians. In addition, his work is still recognized in China and other parts of the world. This demonstrates how big of a legacy he left behind. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Qichang and Lorrain were influential at the national and international levels, and that shows why their works are still recognized. Their landscape paintings can be found in different museums. In addition, their painting styles were different but then different artists in the modern world have adopted them. The fascinating part about their influence was that they came from different continents but managed to revolutionize art in the world. In addition, they were willing to pass their knowledge to other persons in society. This is shown by the fact that Qichang had several classes in which he taught many students. With Lorrain, his one pupil still managed to make a meaningful contribution to society. Most of their artworks are based on their environment, and this is vivid since the Italian and Chinese environment varied largely.

Therefore, both Dong Qichang and Claude Lorrain were successful artists that managed to make a great contribution to the world. They existed during the same time but in different places. However, the difference in location did not hinder their artistic prowess. In fact, they managed to use their talents and make a difference in society. The fact that their artwork can be found in museums in the 21st Century makes them very important contributors in the field.  Based on these findings, their artwork had more differences, and that made them unique. The only similarities shared by these two artists were their influence and motivation for their work. In addition, they have left legacies that are likely to make them relevant in the coming ages.

Campo Vaccino
Lorrain made a painting named Campo Vaccino, which is based in a city in which people engage in different business activities (Artble). In addition, the painting also shows trees and a building with people dressed in Italian culture. The buildings are similar to the designs seen in Rome in the past. Animals are also visible from the painting, and this shows a society in which people are well organized with animals. That would explain why Lorrain’s artistic works are associated with the society from which he lived. With Qichang, the case was quite different.

The Shady Trees in the Summer Landscape
While considering The Shady trees in a Summer Landscape by Qichang, there is a difference with that of Lorrain. The painting is based on a landscape in which houses exist with trees, mountains, and a small road by the side (China Online Museum n.p). In this painting, there is a vivid difference in the brushwork. It relies on the use of different ink tones to create different layers. This environment could be widely associated with the Chinese society. The art is almost a three-dimensional quality, and this is due to the use of different styles in painting.

Invitation to Reclusion at Jingxl
This landscape painting is based on an environment with many rocks and vegetation. The medium is a hand scroll made up of ink with ink on paper. This painting was made in 1611 and contributes towards the view of the painter. It also shows the houses in which people lived at the time. Just as the name suggests, the painting is a representation of the environment in which Qichang lived. In addition, it also shows the manner in which humans and the environment co-exist. The interactions have influenced many things in ancient Chinese practices, as people tend to rely on the environment for their daily needs. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Pastoral Landscape
As the title suggests, this landscape is based on a young girl that looks after goats at a fishing pond. Given the description of the area, it becomes evident that many people around the area are engaged in pastoralism. Trees are also visible from the picture, and it shows the environmental nature. The painting shows a society in which people are wealthy as the values of the cars usually fetch a higher price. The picture has different shades that define the sky and the different lanes.

Works Cited

Artble. Claude Lorrain. 2016. Web. 30 October 2016.

China Online Museum. Shady Trees in a Summer Landscape. 2016. Website. 30 October 2016.

Liu. Dong Qichang and art-historical painting. 2006. Website. 30 October 2016.

Lorrain, Claude. Claude Lorrain: The complete works. 2016. Web. 28 October 2016.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Dong Qichang. 2016. Web. 28 October 2016.

Visual Artists. Claude Lorrain. 2016. Web. 30 October 2016.


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Outsourcing and Labor Relations: The Problem with Outsourcing
One of the most common labor relations issues that are encountered in many industries within the U.S. is the current trend in outsourcing. Whether it is the manufacturing department of a company or its customer support services, many businesses have been outsourcing various aspects of their services. This is due to cheaper labor in countries like China, India and the Philippines where the average monthly wage for a factory worker or Customer Service Representative (CSR) is $300. This is barely a fraction of what most employees in the U.S. earn and, as such, shows why outsourcing individual departments would be appealing to a company due to the cost savings involved (Kuang-Chung and Yungho 216).

However, whenever companies outsource particular departments or services, this often causes labor relation within the organization to break down. This is due to the loss of jobs and the perceived threat that this current trend may continue in the future. The central “truth” about outsourcing is that it systematically weakens workplace rights as well as damages the capacity for unions to effectively negotiate for better wages and benefits. For example, the source of “power” for labor unions is their ability to leverage their influence over the workers of a company (ex: have them strike). However, if a company starts to outsource various portions of its departments, the effective power of these unions are curtailed since, even if they do strike, the company would still be able to manufacture its goods or provide its service through foreign workers. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The power of unions to get better benefits and salaries is diminished since a company with an outsourced department could minimize production in one unit and scale up production in the one in another country. As such, instead of unions negotiating from a position of strength, they are now doing so from a position of weakness since a company would need sufficient incentive to keep the department within its home territory instead of outsourcing it in its entirety. This causes unions to agree to diminished wages and fewer benefits which cause not only tension between laborers and the company but between workers and the union. The result is that companies directly benefit from outsourcing while workers and unions suffer because of it.

This is one of the reasons why many unions within the U.S. tend to file unfair labor practice charges against companies that are in the process of outsourcing or have an outsourcing program in place. However, these charges often do not push through since companies do have the legal right to outsource aspects of their operations should they choose to. Further examination of this issue revealed that labor relations between businesses and workers breakdown even more due to the changing perception of corporations regarding their employees. Due to outsourcing, workers are no longer thought of as “resources to invest in” (at least those in the lower tier of the company); rather, they are now viewed as a dispensable and, more importantly, easily replaceable resource that can be exploited for the benefit of the company (Greenhouse 12).

Implementing a solution to this dilemma would be difficult since utilizing a national labor union does not work if the new workers are in China, India or the Philippines where the idea of unionization has yet to truly catch on. Based on this, it is likely that the issue of outsourcing will continue to be at the forefront of labor relations or union related issues given it impact on the rights of workers and the capacity of unions to protect them.  While there have been some suggestions to resolving such an issue such as implementing an international base salary or some form of international labor union, either of these strategies are looked at with a considerable level of skepticism since they are unlikely to be implemented due to economic, cultural and social differences. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

What is likely is that the current trend in outsourcing is likely to continuously deteriorate the power of unions within the country and will result in deteriorating labor relations. Unfortunately, aside from new laws being put in place to stop outsourcing (a highly unlikely occurrence), it is likely to continue well into the future. In the end, most corporations are for-profit organizations who are ultimately accountable to their shareholders. It would not make sense, from a profit-loss perspective, to maintain operations in a location where it would cost more, and the company would be subject to the demands of local labor unions.

While it is true that outsourcing is likely to generate a feeling of “bad faith” between workers and companies, the fact remains that outsourcing is simply a manifestation of sensible business practices. The only way this issue could be reversed would be if American workers would be willing to work for less and have a substantial cut to their benefits; however, this is unlikely to happen any time soon. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Works Cited

Greenhouse, Steven. “Is Labor Losing Its Voice? (Cover Story).” New York Times Upfront 138.5             (2005): 12. Print

Kuang-Chung, Hsu, and Weng Yungho. “International Outsourcing, Labor Unions, And Job        Stability: Evidence From U.S. Manufacturing In The 1980S.” Journal Of Applied     Economics & Business Research 4.4 (2014): 210-234. Print

Tait, G. E. (1995, September 16). Schomburg exhibit: Time capsule of transcendence, triumph.    New York Amsterdam News. p. 34.