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Question One
The carbonated soft drink industry is one of the most profitable industries in the world. The industry has a few players namely Coca-cola and Pepsi who control the majority of the market revenues and profits. The industry is so profitable for several reasons such as the cost to produce these goods. It is cheap to produce carbonated drinks and thereby these firms have a huge profit margin when making the sales in the market. Another aspect is due to the fact that these companies have direct distributors. This leads to a decrease in the cost of distributing these products to various markets across the globe. These firms also produce, package, and distribute these products through their own subsidiaries (Yoffie & Kim, 2011). This avoids the need of having an intermediary in the market before the products reach the final consumer in the market. When an intermediary is removed from the distribution channel, the profit margin tends to increase.

Question Two
In assessing the economies of carbonated business and bottling business, it is important to assess the various aspects that make the profitability of the two businesses to be very different. In the bottling industry, there are huge production costs due to the high overhead costs and labor. The bottling industry receives nearly 40% of the gross profits and thereby the budgets must have no room for error. Pepsi and Coca-cola overcome this challenge by acquiring bottling companies thus reducing their variable costs and increasing their profits. On the other hand, the economics of concentrate business is based on the ratio of water and concentrate. Concentrate is cheap to produce and is mixed in the ratio of one is to five. This means that when the demand is high, the profit margins are also high and vice versa.  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Question Three
The competition between Pepsi and Coca-cola has often affected the industrial profits in a positive manner. The competition does this through a push-pull effect within the global market. This means that when once company has a new product or innovation in a new market, the other company also makes a decision to produce a new product and introduce it into a new market. This competition thereby tends to provide new and innovative products that in the long term increase the sales revenues of each firm thus increasing the overall profits for the organization.

Question Four
Coca-cola and Pepsi can sustain their profits in the wake of the flattening demand in the global market and decrease in popularity of carbonated drinks through one major way. The firms could also start producing fresh juices that have gained popularity in the global market over the past decade. These products are considered to be more nutritious and would be a great option to enhance the sustainability of these businesses over the coming decades. This would be in line with the changing consumer demands that suggest a shift from carbonated soft drinks to non-carbonated soft drinks. Pepsi has already started this initiative through Gatorade and PowerAde that have gained massive popularity since they are aligned to the consumer demands. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Porter’s Five Forces Analysis
The carbonated soft drink industry can be analyzed through the Porter’s five forces of competition as shown below. The first force is the threat of new entrants. The industry has little threat of new entrants due to the sheer size of capital that is required to compete with these firms. The firms also have great loyalty and strong brands that would prove difficult to compete against. The second force is the threat of new substitutes. The only threat that exists in the industry is the threat from the substitutes that are produced by either firm. The bargaining power of the consumers within the market is limited since the two firm’s price their products are fairly the same prices. The bargaining power of the suppliers is limited since there are only two major customers who buy these products, that is, Pepsi and Coca-cola. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]The industrial rivalry is between the two firms and this can be dealt with through entering into agreements on what prices to set for their products in the market.
Findings from the Analysis into a SWOT

  • Large market share and revenues
  • Incredible identity brands
  • Customer loyalty


  • Flattening demand on carbonated soft drinks
  • Intense competition and rivalry between the two firms


  • Producing non-carbonated soft drinks
  • Access to new markets in parts of Africa and Asia


  • Flattening of the demand on the carbonated soft drinks
  • Increased popularity of non-carbonated soft drinks
  • Entry of other firms into the market such as Mecca Cola.

Yoffie, D., B & Kim, R. (2011). “Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in 2010.”
Harvard Business School, 9-711-462: 711-462.


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Alcoholism is a disorder developed from constant consumption of alcohol. It is associated with a pathologic continuous consumption of alcohol. Some people view alcoholism as being a disease or an illness since this condition shares similar characteristic. Like other disease conditions, alcoholism interrupts the normal functioning of an individual and if not checked could result in weakening of the individual. It is not only a problem to the individual’s life but also a problem to the society. This paper talks about alcoholism in the United States, its impact on the society, some of the accepted policies on alcoholism and possible treatment for the condition.

The following are known facts about alcoholism. It is a chronic condition that if not well taken care off or treated could last an individual’s lifetime. It is also progressive in nature and would move from worse to worst with no chances of getting better. Continuous use of alcohol results into loss of control in alcoholics, once they start drinking they cannot control themselves on whether to continue drinking or stop. Lastly, alcoholism is an incurable condition, after one has stopped taking alcohol they could get back to their former drinking patterns.

Majority of the people in our societies have once in a while taken alcohol. However, we do not refer to everyone as to being an alcoholic. There are those individuals who only take alcohol once in a while maybe during parties and celebrations. Such individuals are known to be social drinkers and experience minimum to no side effects (Siglow et al. 2013). Other people take alcohol but experience severe side effects, such individuals are referred to as problem drinkers. Individuals which are fully dependent on alcohol during their day to day activities fall in the category of alcoholics, who now experience alcoholism. It is approximated that there exists one alcoholic among a group of ten drinkers in the United States (Siglow et al. 2013).[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Impacts of Alcoholism on the US society
Alcoholism has varying effects to the alcoholic, family members and the society. These effects can be grouped into broad categories of social, financial and health problems. Health problems are faced by the alcoholic and closer members of the family while social and financial problems are experienced mainly by members of the society.

Alcoholism is at position three among the preventable causes of death in the United States. Liver cirrhosis, which results from alcoholism, accounts for nearly half of these deaths (Hadland et al., 2015). Accidents resulting from driving under the influence of alcohol are another contributor of the number of deaths attributed to alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Driving under the influence of alcohol contributes to about 40 % of all traffic accident deaths (Wilcox, 2015).

Substance abuse among the youth in the United States is a big problem. Majority of substance abuse among youths is attributed to alcoholism of one or both of their parents. For instance, about 33 % of the 8th graders use alcohol, 19 % smoke cigarettes and 16 % abuse bhang (Waldron et al., 2014). Of the 2.4 teen arrests in the United States 1.9 million were linked to substance abuse (Wilcox, 2015). Not only do these youth engage in substance abuse but also take part in other vices such unprotected teen sex, violence and crimes.

Through a study that involved joint analysis of effects of alcoholism and parent separation on early offspring substance abuse, it was both the two factors that contributed to early onset of substance abuse. Parental alcoholism could have led to the fact that these parents could have compromised their parenting behavior or child bearing criteria. Some cases of parents introducing kids to alcohol or kids trying to emulate them were also present (Waldron et al., 2014).

Alcoholism leads to obesity among alcoholics. Obesity in the United States has been on the rise for the previous years. This resulted into hypotheses being drawn linking the etiology of obesity to alcoholism and other substance abuse. Before then, the increase in obesity was thought to be a general increase in weight across populations until when it was observed that the increase in weight could be linked to some vulnerable groups. From the study it was found out that alcoholics depicted an increase in body weight from 2001-2002. 1991-1992 was the year in which significant association between alcoholism and obesity was drawn (Grucza et al., 2010).

Further, it has been established that alcoholism leads to increase in domestic violence and other social crimes in the society. Alcohol is among the leading abused substances in the United States and has been closely associated with cases of family violence and other social crimes. It is estimated that nearly 3 million alcohol-related crimes occur each year. Offenders of these crimes are often found to having been drinking or had taken alcohol previously. However, in most of alcohol-related crimes it has been found that the victim and the offender know each other. Rarely do these crimes extend to strangers (Wilcox, 2015).

From studies it has been found out that places with higher alcohol establishment density have a higher likelihood of having higher crime rates. Places that had more alcohol establishments were found to have more cases of rape, assault and robbery among other crimes than places with less alcohol establishments. An increase in alcohol establishments increases the availability of alcohol which increases alcohol consumption. Increased alcohol consumption consequently results into an increase in alcohol-related violence and crime (Toomey et al., 2012).

Accepted Policies and Practices on Alcoholism
Alcoholism has been the foremost drug of abuse for some time in the United States. It affects all age groups and brackets of the society be it the young people, the old or even the middle-aged. Impacts of alcoholism have been found to also affect majority members of the society and to a much more extend the development of a country (Burke et al. 1998). Due to this, the United States of America has policies that help control alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Policies on alcohol consumption dates back to 1933 when states were given the mandate to set their own alcohol laws. Most states will then set the minimum drinking age for alcohol at 21 years. In 1960 pressure from student activists forced some of this states to reduce age to 20, 19 and 18 in some other states. Currently, all the 50 states have 21 years as the minimum drinking age.

Universities and colleges are taking an active part in the fight against alcoholism in the United States. Most university policies mainly prohibit possession and consumption of alcohol by students below the minimum drinking age. Universities such as Dartmouth College and UW-Madison have banned alcohol consumption among underage students for various reasons one being to promote abstinence from alcohol consumption (The Stanford Daily, 2016).

The minimum legal drinking age policy is not only applicable in colleges and universities but in all other places. Increasing minimum drinking age has been found to reduce alcohol consumption among individuals. It also helps reduce teenage related calamites such as accidents from drunk teenage driving. For instance, increasing the minimum legal drinking age from 18-20 in 1984 resulted into a decrease in teenage involvement in road accidents.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Taxation by the government has always implicated on prices of commodities. Alcohol consumption and taxation by the government has always depicted similarities similar to those expected with other commodities. However, this relationship is strong in younger drinkers than the old ones. Increase in taxation, which consequently increases alcohol prices, results into decrease in consumption of alcohol. Heavy drinkers have been found to react to this by shifting from drinking  bars to their homes given the fact that drinking in a bar is more expensive at the same time risky than at home. It is also apparent that increases in prices result into decreased alcohol-related problems (Treno et al., 2014).
Alcohol distribution and hours and days of sale are other avenues through which the government limits alcohol use among its citizens. Reduced hours of alcohol consumption limit one to the amount of alcohol he or she consumes. It has also been found that increased hours of alcohol consumption were associated with increased violence and crimes (Treno et al., 2014)

National prohibition requires that all states should come up with alcohol control systems. Suggestions for these systems include monopolizing alcohol sale or continued prohibition. Monopolization would involve monopolizing alcohol sales either fully or partially. This would be a borrowed idea from other countries such as India, Norway and some states within the US. This is aimed at easier control of alcohol products in circulation and operational times of places that sell alcohol (Treno et al., 2014).

Current and Future Treatment 
A lot of debate has been going on the best ways of dealing with alcoholism. It has come to notice that majority of inmates in the United States prisons require treatment on drug abuse and alcoholism yet a few receive it. This has resulted into approximately 95 % of this inmates going back to taking alcohol and drug abuse after coming from prison. Also about 70 % of these drug abusers end up committing a new drug-related crime (Wilcox, 2015). Treatment of alcoholism but not punishments of crimes and offences related to alcoholism are the best solution.

Treatment of alcoholism involves both behavioral treatment and medication. Behavioral treatment involves counseling with the aim of changing the irresponsible drinking behavior. Behavioral treatments involve motivational behavior therapy, rehabilitation and brief interventions. Medication for alcoholism on the other hand involves detoxification phase followed with use of drugs such as benzodiapines and disulfiaarm to reduce anxiety and prevent delirium and seizures. Naltrexone could even be given while the individual still does alcohol as it helps reduce alcohol-craving.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Treno, A. J., Marzell, M., Gruenewald, P. J., & Holder, H. (2014). A Review of Alcohol and
Other Drug Control Policy Research. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. Supplement75(Suppl 17), 98–107.

Siglow, J. (2013). Alcohol and its Effects on the Alcoholic as well as the Family. The Review: A 
Journal of Undergraduate Student Research2(1), 64-69.

Burke, T. R. (1988). The economic impact of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Public Health Reports103(6), 564–568.

Waldron, M., Vaughan, E. L., Bucholz, K. K., Lynskey, M. T., Sartor, C. E., Duncan, A. E., … Heath, A. C. (2014). Risks for Early Substance Involvement Associated with Parental Alcoholism and Parental Separation in an Adolescent Female Cohort. Drug and Alcohol Dependence138, 130–136.

Toomey, T. L., Erickson, D. J., Carlin, B. P., Lenk, K. M., Quick, H. S., Jones, A. M., & Harwood, E. M. (2012). The Association between Density of Alcohol Establishments and Violent Crime within Urban Neighborhoods. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research36(8), 1468–1473.

Hadland, S. E., Xuan, Z., Blanchette, J. G., Heeren, T. C., Swahn, M. H., & Naimi, T. S. (2015).
Alcohol Policies and Alcoholic Cirrhosis Mortality in the United States. Preventing Chronic Disease Prev. Chronic Dis., 12.

Wilcox, S. (2015, June 27). Alcohol, Drugs and Crime. Retrieved November 17, 2016, from

Grucza, R. A., Krueger, R. F., Racette, S. B., Norberg, K. E., Hipp, P. R., & Bierut, L. J. (2010). The Emerging Link Between Alcoholism Risk and Obesity in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry67(12), 1301–1308.

The Stanford Daily. (2016). Enjoy responsibly: Alcohol policies at American universities. The 
Stanford Daily. Retrieved November 17, 2016, from


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Are Undocumented workers causing a strain or Benefit to the Economy
A country’s economic situation depends on several factors, all which determine whether performance will be good or bad. Employment is an important aspect of an economy and is affected by different factors. Immigration has a direct effect on the economic performance of countries, but it is unclear whether the inflow of immigrants hurt or benefits the economy. Different arguments have been placed on whether undocumented workers benefit or strain the American economy.

The Benefits of Undocumented Workers to an Economy
The high population of undocumented workers usually translates to lower expenses for Americans. This is the case because the undocumented workers usually take work that does not require high skills or qualifications. Some of the sectors that benefit from the cheap labor include the hotel industry, agricultural sector, and construction sector. The persons managing such operations usually consider the services of undocumented workers as ideal because they are cheaper and more reliable. In addition, very few citizens are willing to engage in such jobs, and that makes it the best option. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The undocumented workers also contribute towards the economy by paying taxes. Studies show that the undocumented workers contribute up to $12 billion annually through transactions such as income tax, sales, and property purchases (Soergel). In many cases, the workers have been known to provide cheap labor for construction sites and farms, and the employers usually insist that they pay tax. Even though this is not always the case but the contribution still makes an impact on the United States economy.

Another benefit of undocumented workers to the economy is they stimulate growth of small businesses (Roth). Since the immigrants provide cheap labor, the citizens usually find it cheaper to startup businesses, as they will be guaranteed cheap and professional labor. The use of such labor will mean higher profits for the business owners, which also increases the tax generated to the government. It would also be significant to note that the increased labor would stimulate business expansion as well by large corporations such as Apple that has a factory in China due to the presence of cheap labor and favorable government policies. With this situation in America, Apple Corporation has been able to expand more branches within the country while still enjoying higher profit margins (Roth).

The presence of undocumented labor is highly complementary to the American system (Davidson). This is the case because large populations of the American citizens are skilled with educational backgrounds, unlike most undocumented workers. That means that there is rarely any competition among the undocumented workers and the native workers for any work, and even if there is, it occurs in very rare circumstances. That makes it an addition to the economy as it serves to increase revenue in addition to the reduction of unemployment in different sectors. It also aids in saving time when dealing with different sectors of an economy. For instance, the fact that most undocumented workers offer their services at lower rates means that employers can hire more employees for different tasks. For instance, in construction, the contractors find it convenient to rely on a bigger labor force that will reduce the amount of time taken for the entire project. When such projects are completed within a shorter period, the economy grows faster, and living standards are raised for all citizens.

The Strain of Undocumented Workers in an Economy

The presence of undocumented workers in an economy also poses more risk than good in different ways. Based on the description of these workers, they are undocumented, and that means the government is unable to impose on them taxes. The fact that they are not taxed but still benefit from social services provided by the government makes it harmful to an economy (Davidson). An example includes the undocumented workers at a construction site that are paid in wages without tax taking their children to school and hospitals. This way, they get to benefit from the government without actually making any financial contribution towards the economy. The long-term effect of this is that the government will be unable to incur the high costs of providing social services, and make changes that reduce the quality or even increase taxes on the existent documented workers. In addition, the children of these workers usually benefit from the investments made by the state to equip people with high-quality knowledge and skills. Afterwards, most of them leave and go back to their countries, a situation that affects the economy of the United States.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The undocumented workers are known to rely on low-grade jobs that are equivalent to what the locals with diplomas would choose (Wallace). This means that their services might be complementary to the skilled workers within the United States, but they still compete with the low skilled locals for jobs. This fact might be overlooked on many instances because it only affects a section of the native employees. Therefore, many native employees are unable to find jobs because these undocumented workers are willing to take up the jobs for lower pay. This increases unemployment rates among the native employees, who would have made a meaningful contribution towards the economy.

Likewise, the presence of cheap labor from the undocumented workers is likely to lower the wages in the respective fields (Wallace). This is based on the aspect of demand and supply. When there is more labor, the employers can take advantage and lower the wage rates to make more profits. The laborers will have no choice but to take up the jobs because if they do not others would be willing to work for the specified lower rates. This cheap labor will also mean that people move away from embracing technology in work. Many companies have been investing in technology with the aim to make production cheaper and efficient, but the undocumented workers are also willing to offer people the same. The use of machines is associated with lower expenses and time saving, which is also common with the high presence of undocumented workers.

The fact that many undocumented workers are often immigrants means that they have obligations in their countries of origin. For instance, America has a larger percentage of immigrants from South America, and the involved persons usually send remittances back home. When this happens, the economy loses money as it has resources moving across the border to benefit another state at its expense. For instance, in 2010, remittances sent by undocumented workers in the United States accounted for 2.1% of the Mexican GDP (Smith). [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Based on these findings, it is evident to state that the undocumented workers bring more benefits to the US economy than harm. Even though they also pose their threats to the economy, it would create more harm if the contribution of the undocumented workers were to be eliminated from the economy. It would be recommendable that the US government invests more in the education sector to reduce competition for jobs with the undocumented workers. This way, it would be possible for the government to enjoy the benefits of undocumented workers while at the same time ensuring the native employees have jobs. An additional move would be for the government to ensure all these undocumented workers are taxed.

Works Cited 
Davidson, Adam. “Do Illegal Immigrants Actually Hurt the U.S. Economy?” The New York 
Times, 12 Feb 2013,

Smith, Yves. “Negative Effects of Immigration on the Economy.” Naked Capitalism, Angry
Bear, 21 Sep 2016,

Soergel, Andrew. “’Undocumented’ Immigrants Pay Billions in Taxes.” U.S News. 1 March
Wallace, Andrew. “Economic Impact.” The Immigration Debate. Team Global, 2013,


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The period 1820 to 1940 marks a time of an incredible influx of immigrants into native America. America was no longer a Native American territory but also attracted other immigrants who included the Irish, Chinese, Japanese, Jews, and Mexicans. It is during this period that America was going through the industrial transformation underlined by the decline in use of skilled artisans to manufacture and instead there was a significant rise in manufacturing industries (Globalyceum, 2015). This period carries with it the emergence of the division of labor of unskilled workers that was supplied by the immigrants and provided for cheap, affordable labor. This paper aims to explore whether the American industrialization and subsequent expansion were built on the back of a suffering immigrant population who provided the labor that was necessary for the attainment of industrialized status (Takaki, 2008).

Native Americans are a sharp contrast to the rest of the groups that were living in the United States in the period 1820 to 1940 as theirs was not an immigrant experience, but they were the original inhabitants of the nation. Native Americans were referred to as ‘the Indian problem’ by white reformers who regarded themselves as friends of the Indians (Takaki, 2008). But this strategy of knitting close relationships with the Indians was viewed as reserved and slowed down the intended allotment and assimilation. It is in the quest to assimilate and allot the Native Americans that the Dawes Act was enacted (Globalyceum, 2015) This Act sought to emancipate Indians by making them citizens of the United States and transforming them into real property owners. The assets that they owned included tracts of land given to them by the federal government and were tied to an alienable condition that prohibited sale for 25 years (Takaki, 2008). Indian assimilation was done through the white man civilization. Civilization was enacted by the abolition of tribes upon the claim that it was perpetuating habits of “nomadic barbarism and savagery” and led to the Indian way of living in idleness, frivolity, and debauchery. Indian ownership of common land meant that Indians lacked selfishness, a much-desired quality for civilization. This prompted a need to make Indians individual land owners so as to make them ‘independent and self-reliant.’ Setting up Indians as individual land owners was an intelligent strategy as the ‘friends’ of the Indians bought land parcels next to Indians and gradually the Indians picked up the white man’s way of doing things (Takaki, 2008). [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

A civilization which loosely promoted assimilation was further accelerated by the Indian Removal of the Five Civilized Tribes from the South to West of the Mississippi River. Under the fire of a young politician Andrew Jackson who ultimately became president, civilization was measured by Indian graves (Globalyceum, 2015). He argued that the massive death of Indians was inevitable and the moral consequence of civilization. Jackson was an avid discourager of philanthropy. He argued that even in philanthropy, nobody could wish to see the nation restored to the state it was found in. He defined a good man as one who would prefer to see a country studded in cities, towns and prosperous farms to a country with a few savagery people. It is in his era as president that he uprooted seventy thousand Indians (Takaki, 2008).

Assimilation took a different turn when following the reservation system. Reservation followed removal. The forceful removal of Indians by Andrew Jackson from their ‘useless’ forests so as to push them into becoming farmers was a move under the guidance of the Thomas Jefferson (Globalyceum, 2015). The idea for removal was to deprive the Indian chiefs of the power they now possessed and reduce them to plain citizens. Jackson then proposed to preserve this ‘much-injured’ race. He advised the Indians to move to the West, towards Mississippi feigning a father to them to protect them from mercenary attacks (Takaki, 2008).

The Indian New Deal offered a glimpse of hope for Indian salvation. The Indian New Deal spearheaded by John Colier who in 1934 served as the Indian Affairs Commissioner in the government of Franklin D Roosevelt was centered on the spirit of the communion of the Indians that was so fondly termed as, “The secret of life” ( Globalyceum, 2015). The New Deal halted the allotment program that was the culmination of the Indian Reorganization Act. The allotment was eroding away the Indian way of life by whose hallmark was communism as it advocated for individual holdings and was proving fatal to the Indian tribe organization. The Reorganization Act was signed into law by Roosevelt although the final draft had no provision for the preservation of culture. Instead, it removed the allotment program and allowed the Indian tribe purchase of land parcels with the backing of federal funding. The New Deal touched on Indians on Reservations who could now be allowed to set up local self-governments (Takaki, 2008). With these local governments, tribe efforts could be restored. The New Deal was the commencement of the Indian journey to salvation. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The Native Americans refused to be cowered down and would persistently resist efforts of assimilation and allotment. They desired to remain knot together as tribes and did not want to adopt the White Man’s way of working. As such, there was a series of rebellions called the Indian Wars. The Puritan error thoroughly disliked the Indians. They termed their way of life as a degeneration of vices. To the Puritans, the Indians were lazy wretches and would soon pass this onto their children (Globalyceum, 2015). Besides that, they lacked a form of governmental organization and therefore operated in a lawless society. The Indians although less powerful to the white man’s military would occasionally hit back. Most remarkably in the Fort Mines where two hundred white soldiers had been killed. Andrew Jackson hit back ruthlessly at Mississippi in what was called the Battle of the Horse Shoe Bend in March 1814 (Takaki, 2008). In this battle, the Red Sticks, who were a part of the Creek Indian tribe and were keen on frustrating the efforts of the expansionists, were thwarted and efficiently brought to an end the Creek War that was an inevitable result of Jackson’s killing of nearly 800 Indians (Takaki, 2008).

In yet another resistance effort, the Indians under the influence of Wovoka the Paiutes called for Indians everywhere to dance the Gosh dance (Globalyceum, 2015). He convinced them that as they danced and wore ghost shirts, the garments would protect them against bullets. Wovoka’s mission had been fueled by his hatred for the white man, and he garnered a lot of support with the ghost dance metamorphosized into a fad. A distress call made from Pine Bridge to Washington prompted an army to arrest the ghost dancers who were disturbing the peace. It is in this exchange of force and resistance that Chief Sitting Bull was killed leading to Chief Big Foot’s attempt to flee and subsequent capturing of the chief and women and children from his tribe (Globalyceum, 2015).

African Americans were the minority of the immigrants into the United States. An influx of which was charged by slave trade where Africans captured in wars or raids by enemy tribes were sold off as slaves with the first shipment of slaves arriving Virginia (Takaki, 2008). These groups of immigrants were used in plantations after the insurrection of discontent workers in 1676. They provided for free labor on the British plantations and subsequently the nation built up an appetite for slaves. African Americans worked in deplorable conditions, were unpaid and dehumanized as property up until the civil war which was termed by Abraham Lincoln as the ‘scourge of war’ finally put to a stop the African American two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil (Globalyceum, 2015).

In the expansion of the American industrial economy, African Americans found themselves in a preferred treatment even without any remuneration. The Irish were given the more dangerous and hazardous work as compared to the African Americans who were seen more valuable as they were property. After the Bacon Rebellion, African Americans won ‘favor’ with the white farm owners who initially preferred to work with people from their homeland. The white people influx was a product of the kidnapping or illegal sale off into the United States (Takaki, 2008). Work on the plantations began early in the morning and before daylight. Slaves were awoken by a horn that would be blown just before it was light. This blow meant that the slaves needed to get up and prepare cooking for the day. Another would be blown at good daylight followed by inspections into the household of slaves to ensure that they had indeed gone to the plantation (Globalyceum, 2008). Africans on large plantations were a disadvantaged lot as they were severely exploited, and sometimes the landowner refused to get additional labor and so they would be overworked. The smaller scale planters were easier to work with as the amount of work required to be put into the farms was a lot less.

Slaves, such as David Walker who was born to a slave father and a free mother and subsequently adopting the status of his mother understood that slavery could only be ended in violence (Globalyceum, 2015). The stereotyping of slaves led to racial degradation and poverty that severely reinforced prejudice. Social labeling for the black man as ‘immature, indolent and good-for-nothing’ birthed a breed of whites who were certain that the black man was intellectually inferior.  But contrary to the belief of the white man on intellectual incapability, slaves shrouded a form of affection and connection with their masters to plan retaliation without arousing any suspicion. Thousands of slaves would become fugitives to escape stereotyping and go up North (Takaki, 2008). Slaves would occasionally plan docile insurrections and catch their masters off guard; they would then abuse farm equipment and machinery and treat farm animals with so much brutality they would be disabled.

Southern slavery was somewhat the ‘elite’ kind of slavery. After the civil war, the slaves of the south were transformed from the property into freedmen. They now had a form of remuneration in the form of wages as they worked on the land of their former masters and a share in the crop harvest (Takaki, 2008). In the North, slaves were living in deplorable conditions and utter nightmare as detailed by Delany. In the North, slaves were inferior and dependent economically. This lot of slaves lived in self-hate and an overwhelming inferiority complex. Delany argued that blacks had been so oppressed by the white people that they involuntarily helped perpetuate the conditions (Takaki, 2008). In the South, however, slaves had the upper hand where the political scene was dominated by the planters who thoroughly influenced the breakout of the civil war. In the North, some of the African even Americans served in the army to restore the union.

The Western states of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, were significant exporters of livestock and seed grain to the East and the South. The export was heavily dependent on the East’s manufactured goods. The Southern States produced fiber for textile mills in the East and purchased food from the West (Globalyceum, 2015). The most strategic Market Revolution was cotton because it was an independent variable even in the structure of trade both internal and international. Western and Eastern demands were heavily dependent on income received from Cotton trade.  For the cotton export sector to bud land appropriation in the state of Indiana was important and so was the subsequent expansion of slaves. Enslaved Africans were tasked to pick cotton (Takaki, 2008). This need to increase slavery was coming at a time when slavery and the slave trade was being pushed to end.

The 13th, 14th, and 15th constitutional amendments were all in a bid to give land to the freedmen. Radical Republicans understood the need to give land to the freedmen (Globalyceum, 2015). The freeing of the black men meant emancipation and needed to be accompanied by land distribution. The Republicans even advocated for the awarding of land to the freedmen from tracts of the planters. The Fifteenth Amendment by General Sherman set aside large sections of the Georgia and South Carolina that were to be distributed to the black people (Takaki, 2008). The fourteenth amendment was meant to bar states from denying privileges, rights and opportunities to any to any group based on color and race. Only the thirteenth and fourteenth amendments were passed into law (Globalyceum, 2015).[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

In conclusion, the problems across the immigrant groups were varying in intensity. The Irish could claim that they performed the hazardous duties while the African Americans could argue that they were enslaved and starved and lived in deplorable condition. On the other hand, Native American could claim they were forcefully removed from their parcels of land and forced into assimilation.
All immigrant groups suffered immensely, and it is only the nature of the problems that is different. However, the magnitude of the problems, the struggle to be recognized as equals cuts across all the groups making it difficult to grade the groups based on political and social strife.
However, it is correct to say that America’s industrialization was built on the back of immigrants who provide for cheap labor that transformed America’s economy from an agricultural based economy into an industrial economy.

American history unit essay texts. (2015). United States: Globalyceum.

Takaki, R. T. (2008). A different mirror: A history of multicultural America. Boston: Little, Brown & Co.


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H1: Sorority or fraternity membership and demographics significantly influence student’s binge drinking in the college
In any hypothesis, there is a need to authenticate the originality. Even though other studies have reviewed these factors, none of them have been carried out in this college. The hypothesis tests whether the same factors influence the students’ drinking behaviour in the college.

Independent and Dependent Variables
According to Kubachi, Siemieniako and Rundle (2011), the proportion of students engaged in binge drinking seems to be increasing. The proposed hypothesis seeks to determine the factors that influence college binge drinking. In this study, the dependent variable is binge drinking. It depends upon four other independent variables. The first one is the age of the students.  This establishes whether age influences the frequency of drinking, and the amount of alcohol consumed. The second independent variable is the gender of the respondents to determine whether gender influences binge drinking (Godwin, Drennan & Previte, 2016). Third, is the assessment of whether the student’s’ current GPA has an impact on binge drinking tendencies or not. Finally, a review of whether sorority and fraternity membership influences the frequency and the amount of binge drinking. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Theoretical Underpinnings
The research tests whether Rotter’s social learning theory can explain the prevalence of binge drinking in the college (Lefcourt, 2013). The hypothesis specifically tests environmental factors to ascertain whether being part of a particular group increases the likelihood of binge drinking in the College. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.] Innate and modeled factors that influence human behavior are held constant (LaBrie, et al., 2007). Rotter had suggested that when the environment changes, the behavior also changes. Assessing whether the demographic and social factors reviewed influence this vice can determine whether the college needs to tailor outreach programs targeting certain demographics. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Godwin, M., Drennan, J., & Previte, J. (2016). Social capital stories behind young women’s drinking practices. Journal of Social Marketing, 6(3), 294-314.

Kubachi, K., Siemieniako, D., & Rundle-Thiele, S. (2011). College binge drinking: a new approach. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 28(3), 255-233.

LaBrie, J. W., Huchting, K., Pedersen, E. R., Hummer, J. F., Shelesky, K., & Tawalbeh, S. (2007). Female College Drinking and the Social Learning Theory: An Examination of the Developmental Transition Period from High School to College. Journal of College Student Development, 48(3), 344-356.
Lefcourt, H. M. (2013). Developments and Social Problems (2nd ed.). Salt Lake: Elsevier.


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In this essay on whether human activities are determined, the focus will be on the perspective of psychologist Amy Smith who asserted that while people do have automatic behaviors, they can be controlled through an individual’s internal mental processes which are similar to the concept of free will. This perspective is in direct opposition to the views of Bargh and Chartrand who present the notion that a person’s everyday actions are not based on their conscious intentions or purposeful choices but by external environmental influence (Bargh & Chartrand, 1999). This assumption by Bargh and Chartrand can be considered similar to the notion of irrational exuberance which states that people base their actions on the behaviors of other people. As such, it can be assumed that an individual’s interaction with the world around them is based on what they have perceived other people were doing resulting in a form of emulation. An example of this notion was shown in the case example involving a man becoming predisposed to violence due to watching a movie that depicts violence. However, the problem with utilizing this example is that violent movies and television shows are a typical Hollywood staple with millions watching some type of violent program each year yet this has not created a society that is specifically oriented towards violence. This reveals that there must be some underlying factor in place that influences people to restrain their actions which enable them to enjoy the violent scenes they are watching but not desire to actively take part in a similar escapade.

My Position on the Issue
It is this internal mental process that Smith assets are behind an individual ultimately being the one who directs their own goals and actions thereby refuting the assumption presented by Bargh and Chartrand involving external environmental influences. This is not to say that people are not the products of their environment, they are to some degree; rather, it is more accurate to state that while an individual is influenced by their general environment, the ultimate choice behind whether to commit to certain actions or goals lies within the concept of self-direction and internal interpretations of the external environment that a person finds themselves in. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Opposing Position
The opposing position on this issue through the arguments of Bargh and Chartrand present the notion that the correlation between internal thought processes and external environmental influences creates a form of learned behavior (Bargh & Chartrand, 1999). As a result, people tend to manifest the behaviors, perspectives, and overall mannerisms that are present in their external environmental which influences their choices and way of thinking (Bargh & Chartrand, 1999). For example, people, in general, are not born racist, and this has been shown through numerous studies on the issue (Bush, 2010). In fact, logically speaking, racism does not make sense since everyone is technically the same. However, due to the influences of the external environment that a child has been raised in and the various views they are taught to internalize, this manifests as them having a high chance of becoming racist in the future. Thoughts regarding the “inferiority” of other races become “automatic” so to speak due to the significant of internalization that occurred regarding this form of learned behavior From this; it can be seen that the external environment can have a significant impact on behavioral development.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Refutation of Opposing Position
Refuting the arguments presented by Bargh and Chartrand can be done through Social Bond Theory by Travis Hirsche which explains that it is the bonds that people have with their family and friends as well as to various aspects of society that prevent them from committing socially deviant behavior (Scheff, 2000). It is the potential fear over the loss of these bonds that cause a person to conform to various social rules and expectations. This helps to explain the predilection of certain individuals toward criminal behavior since, in many cases, these people lack the necessary social bonds to cause them to fear to lose them (Scheff, 2000). Through this theory, it can be seen that human behavior and its resulting interaction with the general environment is often a manifestation of internal choice rather than the result of external environmental influences.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Position Summary 
Based on what has been presented so far, it can be stated that while a person is affected by their general environment, the ultimate choice behind whether to commit to certain actions or goals lies within the concept of self-direction and internal interpretations of the external environment that a person finds themselves in. The external environment of a person can have a massive impact on how they view the world and the resulting influence this could have on their behavior. However, a person’s choices are still based on conscious will being brought about by their own personal experiences. This means that the influences of an individual’s external environment can only go so far with the ultimate choice relying on their sense of reasoning rather than simply on what they experienced

Reference List
Bargh, J. A., & Chartrand, T. L. (1999). The Unbearable Automaticity of Being. American             Psychologist54(7), 462.

Bush, V. (2010). Are We Born Racist?: New Insights from Neuroscience and Positive Psychology. Booklist106(22), 10.

Scheff, T. J. (2000). Shame and the Social Bond: A Sociological Theory. Sociological Theory18(1), 84.

Tait, G. E. (1995, September 16). Schomburg exhibit: Time capsule of transcendence, triumph. New York Amsterdam News. p. 34.


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The last two or three decades has seen significant ideological changes within the United States and the world at large. In fact, research has shown that there is scant racism in the form of individual, institutional, and cultural racism (Scott, 2007). Since the discussion will mainly focus on cultural racism among the Islamic community, it will be centered on both the historical and contemporary perspectives of the same. Though racial connotations have been proven to be mythical rather than factual, people still associate certain people with certain characteristic (Scott, 2007). As a result, the paper will mainly discuss the notion of cultural racism concerning Mehdi Semati’s analysis of Islamophobia. It will also show the development of “brown” as a racial category in the recent debates, bringing in examples observed in the world.

According to Considine (2016) who uses Stuart Hall’s definition, race is a floating signifier with different connotations at different points in history. Hall examined the new type of racism in his scholarly works, arguing that racism has changed to encompass culture as well. Therefore, discrimination these days is based on people’s beliefs and practices, which are associated with a certain “imagined culture” (Considine, 2016, para. 12). For that matter, Muslims happen to be the most affected despite the fact that they do not fall under any racial category. Cultural racism develops a “hierarchy of cultures” where certain cultures are perceived to be superior to others (Considine, 2016). The western civilization/culture believes that they are superior to the Islamic culture, which leads to discrimination and other different forms of afflictions against Muslims. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Before discussing or developing the concept of cultural racism or Islamophobia as analyzed by Semati (2010), it is necessary to note how the idea has developed. The Orientalist visions and narratives developed over the years by the West have been the primary sources of imagery, narratives, and ideas about Muslims today (Semati, 2010). The knowing of the Orient over the years has accommodated projects of Western imperialists. In Orientalism published in 1978, Said found out that the media is still responsible for the coverage and reproduction of the Orient as knowledge servicing power (political) (as cited in Semati, 2010, p. 258). Currently, the imagery of the Islam as a community is constructed from the security/terrorism concerns in the West. Though some of these ideologies are developed from the context of the contemporary events by Muslims, most of the convictions are stereotypical and unfair to other members of the culture.

As a question of racism, Islamophobia is posited as an ideological response “conflating histories, politics, societies, and cultures of the Middle East into a unified and negative conception of Islam that is incompatible to the superior Euro-American cultures” (Semati, 2010, p. 257). According to Stolz (2005), Islamophobia is the “rejection of Islam, Muslim individuals and Muslim as a group based on stereotypes and prejudices” (as cited in Cheng, 2015, p. 564). In fact, Semati (2010) finds it to be an ideological response with roots from international politics by linking some of the ills in the global societies to Islam as well. Though there have been historical ills over the years, Semati finds inherent antagonism to be at the heart of the global community. It shows that ‘phobia’ in this context is not as understood from clinical psychology but as used to describe xenophobia or homophobia produced socially, culturally, and politically against particular categories of people in the society (Semati, 2010). Such affiliations are hard to change considering that they have been shaped over time by history and experiences; for instance, the post 9/11 period saw massive shifts in the relationship between Americans and people with a Middle East descent. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Semati (2010, p. 266) makes the distinction that cultural racism is similar to biological racism in the context of conceptualizing the difference of other culture in an immutable, static, fixed and frozen essence. Therefore, Islamophobia is understood in terms of mystified international politics and violence attributed to differences in religion, culture, and tradition. Hence, he defines it as a cultural-ideological belief that attributes most of the ills that destroy social order to Islam. The ideology combines the history, politics, cultures and societies from Arab countries to a single negative perception of Islam. It comes out as a form of racism and the view that people with ‘different’ cultures in a fixed and immutable fashion.
Semati (2010) goes on to explain that cultural racism conceptualizes international political events based on religion rather than motive, geopolitical calculations, and the actors – implying that Islamism is incompatible with modernity, civilization, and Euro-Americanness. It happens to erase, as well as create difference among people. Apparently, Semati’s discussion brings out the fact that the West cultivates cultural racism in that they bring out the distinction between cultures, mainly Islam. Without any regard to the personal characteristic of individuals, they are already branded as ill-minded and the primary source of destruction in a peaceful country (Semati, 2010). The use of Islamophobia to separate and group people under a single unified negative view is a form of cultural racism.

As a result, Considine (2016) mentions that public discourse has consistently depicted Muslims as arch-villains in the society, an idea that has made non-Muslims to develop all sorts of racist anxieties. Though the Euro-Americans have tried to present Islamophobia as a rational response to threats to the West, vivid connection between the anti-Muslim sentiments and racism are evident. However, it is impossible to rationalize on matters that discriminate on certain sets of people. In fact, there can never be any excuse as to why people should be treated differently from other people based on stereotypic beliefs evident in the past.

As Semati (2010) discusses how Islamophobia is taking root within the country, he explains how the term ‘brown’ is changing in meaning over time. Whereas it was once used to signify an exotic ‘other’ in the society, deepening Islamophobia has led to a formation that hypothesizes ‘brown’ as an identification strategy of terror and threat. Therefore, the rising cultural racism against Muslims uses ‘brown’ as a signifier of the potential terror that people from the Middle East pose. In cultural terms, the events of the 9/11 provided the horizon within which social-political antagonisms are recast globally (Semati, 2010, p. 257). As Islamophobia has taken root in globally, the signifier ‘brown’ is a racial formation from cultural politics used to site various security discourses and issues. For instance, ‘brown’ and security threat implies the Middle East and terror while ‘brown’ and immigration mean border security reflecting terror (Semati, 2010). Therefore, as Islamophobia deepens within the society, the category of brown is transformed to posit alterity to the Euro-American identity through terror and threat (Semati, 2010). A clear example of the use of the signifier is the case positing Middle East men flying, and they are already suspected of terror and viewed as a threat to the security of other people on the plane. This is without any evidence that the people or person is a threat to the safety of the aircraft, yet Euro-Americans feel insecure with the ‘brown’ other in the plane.

Clearly, the development of the terms ‘brown’ to identify Muslim individuals and groups posits the development of racialization of people. Though this is used as a means of rationalization to protect citizens from potential threats, it is impossible to rationalize on issues of race. One is either racial or not, therefore, the term is a signifier of racism with the global social, political and cultural contexts. In fact, it has deepened xenophobia and homophobia against Muslim communities in the world, labeling them as potential threats to the security and wellbeing of other people in the community. In the racial formations of the society, the state is constantly spooked by their ability to see some suspicious attributes of brown men as racialization deepens.  [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

From the discussion above, it is clear that historical events and occasions have led people to an identification strategy that seeks to unfairly rationalize on issues of security. In the process, the Euro-Americans have resulted in the rise of the ‘brown’ category in the society and the deepening of Islamophobia within the country. I agree with Semati in his identification of culture as an explanation of the contemporary popular and political imagery evident today. Cultural racism is clearly evident in the deepening Islamophobia within the society. Semati identifies Islamophobia to entail ideas that conflate histories, cultures, and societies of the Middle East into a single negative conception of the Islam. The problem with such a conflation is the belief that Islam is incompatible with the culture of Euro-Americans. Euro-Americans view their culture as superior to the culture of Muslims and find it impossible to relate peacefully with them considering that they pose potential security threats to their society.
Cheng, J. E. (2015). Islamophobia, Muslimophobia or racism? Parliamentary discourses on Islam and Muslims in debates on the minaret ban in Switzerland. Discourse & Society26(5), 562-586.

Considine, C. (2016, November 19). Muslims aren’t a race, so i can’t be racist, right? Wrong?dividual, institutional, and cultural racism, with implications for HRD. Indianapolis, IN.

Semati, M. (2010). Islamophobia, culture and race in the age of empire. Cultural Studies24(2), 256-275.


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Business Viability: JustCookBooks.com

The JustCookBooks.com internet company is set to launch in six months. With the following calculations, I believe it has the potential to be a success.
First of all, the estimated annual cost consists of the following items:

  • Technology (Web design and maintenance) $5,000
  • Postage and handling $1,000
  • Miscellaneous $3,000
  • Inventory of cookbooks $2,000
  • Equipment $4,000
  • Overhead $1,000

This makes for a total of $16,000 in annual costs, not including product cost. With an expected sales of 22,000 cookbooks a month at $20 cost for each book, the monthly cost for cookbooks is $440,000. In order to extend this to estimate a yearly cost: $440,000 x 12 = $5,280,000. Using these two figures, we can establish an estimated yearly cost to operate JustCookBooks.com:
Yearly Book Cost + Estimated Annual Operations Costs = Total Annual Cost
$5,280,000 + $16,000 = $5,296,000
Total Yearly Cost = $5,296,000

Now that we know the annual cost of JustCookBooks.com, we must explore price points. The cookbook cost is $20 each and the average retail price is $30. This means that by using a demand curve formula, we can learn more about what the best price for a cook book would be. In this exercise, the equation for demand is Q = 40,000 – 500P, where Q = the number of cookbooks sold per month P = the retail price of books. We will show here what the demand curve would like given three different prices per book: $25, $30 and $40. As these equations:

  • Q = 40,000 – 500(25) = 27,500
  • Q = 40,000 – 500(30) = 25,000
  • Q = 40,000 – 500(35) = 22,500

According to the curve, there is approximately a $5000 a month difference between the $25 and $35 price point. This is quite substantial, particularly if the business owner was previously bringing in a $50,000 annual salary.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

In order to decide if this business is viable, we need to bring together these first two sections. Extending these months amounts to become yearly, we can project yearly sales:

  • $25 – 6,600,000
  • $30 – 7,920,000
  • $35 – 9,240,000

Next, using the costs determined in the first section, we can do the following equation:

  • $25 a book : 6,600,000 – (costs) 5296000 = 1304000
  • $30 a book : 7,920,000 – (costs) 5296000 = 2624000
  • $35 a book : 9,240,000 – (costs) 5296000 = 3944000

Whether fewer books are sold at higher prices or more are sold less expensively, this business definitely has the possibility to bring in profits. Based on the calculations above, this business is definitely worth pursuing. There is clearly an opportunity for profit. Giving up a salary of $50,000 annually as well as part time income in order to run this business is certainly worth the sacrifice. The market structure for this type of niche internet sales business is monopolistic. By providing a very specific type of profit and having a large amount of control over pricing, there is a greater freedom to adjust prices and inventory. This freedom to control profits and inventory also makes giving up a yearly salary less risky.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Success is never guaranteed in a business venture, but this particular business provides many opportunities to help a business owner succeed. While traditional marketing efforts and advertising are always advantageous, doing business on the internet adds increases the list of ways to get the word out. It also allows a business owner to easily survey clients as well as track sales and find patterns in order to improve sales.

Particularly in a niche market like cookbooks, pricing strategies can vary greatly. It is clear from the graph above that even changing the cost of a single item by a few dollars can bring about a huge change in income. As shipping will be involved and e-commerce processes, it would be completely justified to add various charges. It is best not to try to makemoney off these sorts of fees, but they can help keep operating costs more under control. In a sales niche like bookselling, there is a great opportunity to provide special rebates, book club offers and special editions at increased rates. Also, creating a membership club can allow shoppers to receive special discounts and it has the added bonus of giving the business owner a list of those who have already shown their interest in the company.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Overall, I think this business would be a good investment. The risk-to-reward ratio seems such that the business owner is more likely to enjoy the change and make money, than miss her or her salaried position.


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Thesis Statement: There are benefits and drawbacks in choosing to work during the day versus working during the evening. Day and night shifts present a different set of challenges to employees and also make available a different set of advantages. For many employees, choosing which shift to work is not always an option. For those who are able to choose, there is research data available to determine which option is best for each person. Comparing and contrasting day and night shift work should consider variables such as the employee’s family situation (kids, spouse working a certain shift), other obligations (school, caretaking responsibilities for a loved one), and the psychological/medical disposition of the employee (those who generally perform better in the evenings than they do during daylight hours, effects on physiology). There are often rewards outside of the general opportunities to choose one shift over another. Depending on the needs of the employer, certain shifts may come with compensation benefits that should also be considered when choosing. Choosing a shift choice should take into consideration all or most of the variables that come with each option and be chosen based on which shift provides the best chance for the employee to succeed.

Choosing to work the day shift or the night shift is just one of the considerations an employee will have to confront. Though the choice is not commonly thought of as a make or break decision, there are several aspects of choosing the best shift that can make a significant difference in the employee’s ability to perform well. Part of the choice that has the most impact on an employee is the effect of shift work on the employee’s health.

Health Impacts of Working Different Shifts
One area of health that can be affected by working various shifts is metabolic function. Specifically, beverage consumption during different shifts has been shown to influence various health conditions related to metabolic function. A clinical study on diabetes and metabolic syndrome suggests that those who choose night shift work are more likely to consume sugary beverages. Those who consume beverages high in sugar are usually the same group of people who consume the least amount of water during a given period. This lack of water intake contributes to a greater than average risk of developing diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

The clinical study was conducted as a cross-sectional comparative study and accounted for employees working different shifts, their drinking habits, and the results on their overall health. Information was collected consistently among employees who worked between the hours of 7 a.m. and 7 p.m. as well as those who worked essentially the opposite hours. Among the data collected over a three-day period was an assessment of dietary intake. This enabled researchers to understand both the prevailing habits of the subjects and the effects of those habits on the subjects’ health. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Ways that employees can reduce the risks of negative health impacts while working the night shift includes being diligent about maintaining proper eating habits, avoiding stimulants, and maintaining a consistent sleep schedule to improve cognition and overall health.

Psychology of Shift Work
The American Psychological Association cites risks of night shift work that include several factors worth considering. One risk of working the night shift is a disruption of the body’s natural rhythms. The assessment of the APA is not an indictment on night shift by itself, but rather the other habits shared broadly by those who work the night shift and how those habits affect the psychology of the workers. For example, poor planning and failure to adhere to a set sleep schedule contributes greatly to the negative psychological effects of working the night shift. Added to this is a failure to maintain a proper eating schedule and balanced diet. Combined, poor sleep, inconsistent eating, and poor menu choices play a role in the negative psychological effects of working the night shift. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Added benefits of Working Later
While there are several reasons to consider the risks associated with working the night shift there are benefits. Many organizations offer a nighttime differential in compensation to entice workers to choose less-desirable shifts. If an employee is able to mitigate the negative effects of working the night shift, there are often opportunities to reap financial rewards unavailable to daytime employees. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Other reasons to choose working a later shift is an added sense of autonomy. Oftentimes, the main portion of management staff works during the day. This leaves the night shift with a greater level of freedom to fashion a work environment that reduces stress and can lead to greater production. Similarly, in fields other than healthcare, the workload overnight is often less than that of a day shift. This tendency, coupled with the potential for an increased rate of pay for working the night shift, means nighttime workers are effectively being compensated in two ways for their choice.

Mashhadia, Nafiseh Shokri, Saeed Saadatb, Mohammad Reza Afsharmanesh, Saeed Shirali (2016). “Study of association between beverage consumption pattern and lipid profile in shift workers.” Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews

Price, Michael. (2011). The risks of night work. American Psychological Association. 42.1 p. 38

A Comparison Between Shifts
I. There are benefits and drawbacks in choosing to work during the day
A. Comparing and contrasting day and night shift work should consider variables
B. Obligations
C. Psychological/medical disposition
D. Rewards outside of the general opportunities
II. Health Impacts of Working Different Shifts
A. Metabolic function.
B. Sugary beverages
C. Lack of water intake
III. Ways that employees can reduce the risks of negative health impacts
A. Being diligent about maintaining proper eating habits
B. Avoiding stimulants
C. Maintaining a consistent sleep schedule
IV. Psychology of Shift Work
A. Disruption of the body’s natural rhythms
B. Poor planning and failure to adhere to a set sleep schedule
C. Failure to maintain a proper eating schedule and balanced diet
V. Added benefits of Working Later
A. Nighttime differential in compensation
B. Added sense of autonomy
C. Lighter workload


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Who I Am and Who I Am Becoming as a Christian Ethicist

Determining right from wrong is often a nearly impossible task, especially when it comes to moral issues. However, as a Christian Ethicist, I hope to continue learning and exploring God’s laws in order to help others lead a right and righteous life. Though deep exploration of moral theology can be a daunting task, I am no stranger to tackling hard issues. I have had a tumultuous and intense 55 years on this earth. Beginning with growing up in a time when there were not many opportunities for inner city black youth, I was raised among poverty, drugs and run-down buildings. My childhood was full of chaos. Proctor speaks of the need for stability in a child’s life: “A crucial characteristic of the incubator that fosters the affirmation of one’s personhood is that one looks around and sees in it order and meaning.” (Proctor, 65) The incubator I had been placed in did not positively affirm my personhood, it did not keep me warm and help me thrive. With this lack of order in my life, I continued to make poor choices and end up in bad situations.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

By the time I was eighteen, I had dropped out of high school, had a child and been involved with several emotionally and physically abusive men. Despite my parents’ warnings, I continued to make poor choices and ended up in marriages “locked in mutual destruction.” (Proctor, 88) Even in my own church, as a licentiate, I was being abused. I couldn’t understand how men who claimed to have been called by God to lead could abuse their power in that way. I felt I was being discriminated against for my gender and eventually decided to leave the African Methodist Episcopal Denomination completely. After some time, I decided to return to the denomination and found a new church. I needed to continue pursuing my calling and I wasn’t going to let a few bad men chase me away. I have faced a lot of things down in my life and today I am much more confident of my abilities in all areas of my life. I work to form strong relationships with my family, my friends and my God. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Social Psychologist Gordon Allport devoted most of his career to developing the proprium, a developmental theory detailing the seven aspects of the self. Allport’s proprium is a timeline for development of humans from childhood to adolescence. Reading Proctor and looking at the last two stages in the proprium was very eye-opening for me. I began to look at my own childhood and adolescence through the lens of Proctor’s and Allport’s views regarding human development and behavior. (Boeree)

As a child, my life was disorganized and I often felt unsafe. Allport’s “Rational Coping” stage of the proprium occurs generally between the ages of six and twelve. This is the stage in which children develop coping mechanisms and learn to approach problems and situations in life rationally. During those years in my life, I did not have a safe space or any role models showing me the right way to deal with life’s problems. It is clear to me now that my ability to rationally address situations was severely affected by my surroundings during this crucial stage of my development. The last stage of the proprium is “Propriate Striving.” It has only been in recent years, as I began to follow my calling to the ministry, that I have truly begun to take ownership of my life. For Allport, propriate striving happens sometime after a child turns twelve and it is the realization that their life belongs to them; that they must make plans for the future and set goals; that they are the captain of the ship. “One of the most frightening aspects of growing up is that slow but sure discovery that we have the freedom to make some serious choices in life on our own, and these choices do not go away.” (Proctor, 51)

I don’t believe I ever felt like I was the captain of my ship as an adolescent. Throughout most of my life, I have let the waves take me where they will and I have often blamed others for the bad things that have happened to me. As a child, I may have had limited choices and been treated poorly, but that does not mean I do not have the power to take control of my life now. Proctor believes strongly that people can, and should, change:
“Because our values, loyalties, and priorities are learned not inherited through our genes, and because they are buttresses and affirmed by habit and emotional attachment, they will not remain static.” (Proctor, 85)

I knew I had to change and stop blaming my difficult childhood and tumultuous personal relationships for the current problems in my life. When my younger sister died recently, suddenly, I had to take control of the situation. There were decisions that needed to be made and I had no choice but to face them and try to work through my grief. During this time, I turned to my unbending belief that God is all-knowing and all good.

My relationship with God and my faith in His plan have gotten me through so many rough times in my life. When I feel like burying my head in the sand, I remember that everything happens for a reason. Every single thing that happens to us – bad or good – is a part of God’s plan for our lives. Though I may not be able to understand why God would take my little sister from us, I do understand that He has his reasons. Proctor discusses the need to move through our lives with dignity and diligence, knowing that God is in control and that there is a purpose in all that we experience. You might hate your job, but maybe you are there because God is setting things up for you to cross paths with someone who is supposed to be in your life. I believe, like Proctor, that faith can give us the fortitude to get through tough situations with strength and grace.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Stone and Duke discuss two types of theology: embedded and reflective. Our embedded theology is the natural relationship we have with God and our faith. This type of theology is always with us, but often isn’t discussed or questioned for long periods of time. Reflective theology is when you begin to really delve into what you believe and why you believe it. Crises, like the death of my sister, often bring about theological reflection. (Stone & Duke, 16) It is during these times of reflection that we learn the most about ourselves and our faith. This is why it is so important that we remind ourselves to spend time in prayer; spent time earnestly thinking about what God intends for us. The more time I spend in theological reflection, the closer I become to God. By spending time reflecting or praying, I am strengthening my faith by building my personal relationship with God. As I become a Christian ethicist, I am increasing my knowledge of right and wrong and my trust in God’s righteousness and goodness.

Faith is impossible without a relationship with God. Now more than any other time in history, a personal relationship with God is essential. It is imperative that we seek him out and accept his leadership and guidance. I am building my life around the values of God and his Word. Along with reflection and prayer, my relationship with God is also strengthened through my relationship with His Son. Jesus was sent down to Earth to provide a clear, personal connection to God. For Proctor, the fully human Jesus and Jesus the divine son of God were one and the same. People need to have a relationship with God and are able to do so through Christ. Proctor considered Jesus’ teachings and examples to be the most important part of his ministry. By reading and following the example of Jesus Christ, we will be acting as God intended humans to act:

When we put to the test – to any test whatever – what he taught and how he lived it turns out that it is the only way for us to proceed in our personal lives or as a people, a society, or a nation without chaos and self-destruction … Indeed, Jesus is the way, the truth, and the life. (Proctor, 97)
Jesus was concerned with those in need, those who were marginalized and cast out by society. As a human, Jesus was an example of what God expects from all humans. By following the example of Jesus in my own life – and in my ministry – I will be following my calling from God. At the root of Jesus’s teachings and Christianity in general, is the theme of service. As a woman of God, I can use Jesus’ examples to become closer to God and to help others strengthen their relationships with Him as well. As a Christian ethicist, I will serve my God by ministering to my fellow Christians. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

As a child, I lacked the guidance and stability to learn right from wrong or get a clear view of morality. I continued to ignore the Christian values I knew to be correct throughout my adolescence and young adulthood. Today, I know that it is vitally important that children are brought up with God front and center in their lives, supported by family that provides discipline and moral teachings. I believe that young people today are given too much freedom to make choices that can negatively affect them for the rest of their lives. When I got pregnant at fifteen, I did not consider how it would affect my long-term future. Proctor discusses the importance of providing young people with guidance and support (Proctor, 54), protecting them from bad choices and morally corrupt actions.

As a minister and Christian ethicist, I believe I can help to guide the children I work with as well as other children that come into my life. By studying God’s Word carefully and using it to determine and establish morally correct standards, I intend to be the guide that I did not have as a child. I will help to provide direction and guidance that children and adolescents – and their parents, often – need in order to learn how to live happy, Christ-like lives. I am learning that I can be a catalyst for change in others’ lives as well as my own. My past has made me strong and my God has made me even stronger. I know that my calling is to be a minister of God and I believe there is nothing more important than a personal relationship with Him. I plan to use my experiences and knowledge to help others form a personal relationship with God that can help them live full, truly Christian lives.

Boeree, G.C. (1998) Gordon Allport 1897-1967. Personality Theories. Retrieved from:

Proctor, Samuel D. My Moral Odyssey. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press, 1989.

Paris, Peter J. Virtues and Values: The African and African American Experience. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1998.

Stone, Howard W. and Duke, James O. How to Think Theologically; Second Edition. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 2006.