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Texas State currently has an extensive Summer Games repertoire consisting of a multitude of summer Olympic sports, in addition to more unique ones such as Disc Golf, Skateboarding and Pickleball (Summer Games 2016, 2016). Of the sports it includes, only two could be categorized within the martial arts category- Boxing and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, and of these two, only Boxing is an Olympic sport (Summer Games 2016, 2016). To make the Texas Summer Games a more complete Olympic-style experience, it is recommended that the sport of Judo be added to its roster. Judo was first added to the Summer Olympic Games in Tokyo in 1964, and has since become a worldwide phenomenon, spiking individuals from all countries and countries to envelop themselves in the sport. Judo, known as “the gentle way”, achieves victory over an opponent by adapting and taking advantage of and their movements and strength to throw them on the ground and take control (International Judo Federation, 2016). Judo is regulated by the International Judo Federation, which consists of an executive committee that works to determine rules, scoring, anti-doping laws, and belt qualifications for the all registered judo federations across the globe (International Judo Federation, 2016). The Texas State Summer Games encompass many of the common Summer Olympic sports, but to model it as a true Olympic-experience, it is necessary to work with local, state, federal and global organizations to add Judo as a supported sport.

In making the decision to add Judo as a Summer State Sport for the Texas Summer Games, it is necessary that the games organizers speak with the Texas Judo Organization, the United States Judo Association, and the International Judo Federation (Texas Judo, 2016). In speaking to these different organizations, the games organizers can ensure that they are able to hire experienced and qualified referees, score counters, and sport organizers, in addition to clearly laying out the rules and regulations of the event. For instance, there are strict anti-doping laws in place within the International Judo Federation, and these expand outwards to all IJF sanctioned competitions and events. Further, there are specific rules involving weight classes, match-ups, and scoring that must be consistently abided upon within all IJF sanctioned venues (Texas Judo, 2010). This ensures that any athletes that begin to enter into higher levels of competition do so with consistent statistics from lower levels of tournaments. Additionally, before a sport can be added to the Texas Summer Games, the organizers must look over and contact local organizations and clubs within the state, to ensure that they would be interested in being included within the event. Once the numbers are confirmed and the rules are in place, the organizing of the schedule, volunteers, referees, and expert coaches can be created, and the event can be moved forward. The addition of Judo to the Texas Summer Games is a large decision that involves consulting with local and state clubs, federal associations, and international organizations in order to confirm the attendance, rules, scoring, and the procurement of expert referees and volunteers. Through this, Judo can be added as a sanctioned international event to the Summer Games, and the athletes participating can gain merit and credit for their achievements within the games. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Robert’s Rules of Order provides common guidelines and procedures for hosting orderly meetings and conventions among large groups of people (Kennedy, 1997). When the General Assembly meets and decides upon adding a sport to the State Summer Games, they must come upon a consensus as a group. In order to facilitate these meetings, the Rules of Order are employed such that all members get a say, and the meeting proceeds without undue disruption (Kennedy, 1997). When the meeting commences, it will follow an agenda according to Robert’s Rules of Order. The meeting would begin with a reading and approval of the previous meeting’s minutes, updated reports on any officer’s, boards, and standing or special committees, a conclusion of any unfinished business from the previous meeting, and then the call for new business, followed by the adjournment of the meeting (Robert’s Rules of Order, 2010). In adding a new sport to the Texas Summer Games, the topic would be brought upon in the “New Business” section of the agenda, where the idea for the sport and research completed would be presented as a motion, followed by a discussion between all involved members, and a vote upon whether or not to add the sport (Robert’s Rules of Order, 2010). Once the decision has been made, the executives will make a motion to adjourn, and the result will be recorded into the meeting minutes (Robert’s Rules of Order, 2010).[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Due to the popular nature of the Texas Summer Games, the addition of a new Summer Olympic Sport to the roster will make for an exciting add-on to the schedule. It is projected that adding in Judo will add to the Texas Summer Games by bringing in new athletes and organizations, creating new fans and practitioners of the sport, and fostering the skills of existing Judo athletes within the state. By presenting the new addition to the General Assembly in charge of the Summer Games in accordance with Robert’s Rules of Order, we can ensure that all members of the assembly will be educated on the topic, and will be encouraged to air any grievances they might possess. In doing this, we can ensure that Judo will be defended as a quality sport, and will be added to the next State Summer Games. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

International Judo Federation. (2016). KANO and the Begining of the Judo Kennedy, B. (1997).

Robert’s Rules of Order. (2010, November 16). The Agenda – Choreography of Rights and Abuses

Summer Games 2016. (2016). Texas Amateur Athletic Federation

Texas Judo. (2010, April 30). USA Judo Contest Rules

Texas Judo. (2016).


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According to Novotny (2015), the battle against tobacco has yet to be won. Smoking remains a significant threat to the health outcomes of the global population. Today, more than a billion people smoke tobacco, while more than 6 million succumb to the effects of smoking. In the words of Novotny (2015), the war against tobacco is evolving, with scholars and health experts coming up with new methods to combat the menace. Unlike in the past, researchers are developing out of the box means to fight tobacco – methods that target the supply sector rather than the demand sector of tobacco. Novotny (2015) further notes that several ideas have been devised to fight tobacco, including targeting tobacco marketing, the imposition of limits on the supply of tobacco, and establishing smoke-free generations through the prohibition of tobacco use.

In addition to these measures, the World Health Organization, through the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, has enacted interventions to reduce tobacco use. These interventions include monitoring of tobacco use, protection of people from secondary effects of smoke, helping tobacco smokers quit use of tobacco, educating people on the adverse effects of smoking, and raising tobacco taxes and enforcing bans on tobacco marketing and sponsorship (Novotny, 2015). [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]One decade after the development of these measures, delegates of the signatory countries are celebrating the effects of these interventions. In addition to these interventions, countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States have come up with legislations on the marketing of tobacco products to discourage its use (Novotny, 2015). So far, the US has enacted the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act that seeks to regulate the marketing of tobacco by allowing scientific research to determine the effects of marketing and labeling of tobacco with the aim of identifying the best way to labeling tobacco products to reduce its use (Novotny, 2015). Novotny (2015) concludes by arguing that substantial efforts have been put to eradicate the use of tobacco, but new efforts are needed for the eradication of smoking.  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Indeed, various efforts towards the elimination of tobacco have been put forward. Tobacco eradication remains a major headache for governments across the globe. These efforts have not yielded any effects on smoking. With one billion smokers, the war against tobacco use has yet to be won. In fact, it is in its preliminary stages, and it is just a start of the war towards smoking. The interventions put forward by Novotny (2015) beg the question whether tobacco eradication is a legitimate objective. Do those one billion smokers value quitting smoking? Do they think that quitting smoking would be beneficial to their health as compared to continuing with their habits? The efforts against smoking will continue to grow and evolve, yet no intervention has been implemented that incorporates the narratives of those who smoke. The greatest question one must ask in the light of these efforts is why people who smoke prefer tobacco; do they care about the effects of smoking? [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]
In contrast to the views of Novotny (2015) that the current efforts towards smoking are an end game towards tobacco use, tobacco is here to stay; not that the use of tobacco is not detrimental but that measures against tobacco focus on the wrong targets. The war on tobacco should not be modeled on the earlier war on drugs. Rather it should focus on the users. The key to combating tobacco is to determine the incentives that encourage people to partake tobacco, not on the health effects of smoking (Bates, 2015). Current measures are modeled on the basis that lack of use of tobacco will lead to better health outcomes, but these measures fail to consider that health is only a small part of the bigger picture. The out of the box ideas that Novotny (2015) puts across are not out of the box as they are fashioned with health as the fundamental perception. Researchers and scholars have to dig deeper to understand tobacco use, not from their own viewpoint based on health as an incentive, but from the experiences of tobacco users.


Bates, C. (2015). The tobacco endgame: A critique of policy proposals aimed at ending tobacco use. The Tobacco Endgame.
Novotny, T. E. (2015). The tobacco endgame: Is it possible? PLOS Medicine12(5), e1001832.


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Miroslav Volf, a Croatian theologian, argues that it is vital that individuals remember if they seek to achieve peace and forgiveness. Similarly, Elie Wiesel explains that through his experiences during the Holocaust, justice can only be obtained by rightly remembering the injustices of Auschwitz. In light of this, can humans forgive without forgetting the hurt or the betrayal they have suffered at the hands of someone?

Forgetting is not an easy experience. Forgetting ensures people do not seek justice. Conversely, remembering allows individuals to tell their stories truthfully and hopefully. Remembering responsibly gives enables people to reconcile. Volf (2010) asserts that forgiveness cannot be rightly achieved unless people are truthful about their experiences. Being truthful requires individuals to bear witness. One the same note, anyone who has experienced injustice, no matter how trivial is, cannot easily forget.

As much as ‘forgive and forget’ is a common preaching in today’s life, forgiving does not necessarily require one to forget the atrocities done to them. Forgiveness merely means forgetting the rage and the hurt caused by the atrocity (Volf, 2010). The importance of remembering is that every time people share their experiences, it prevents the reoccurrence of the same crime.

As Volf (2010) quipped, we are our human best when we give and forgive. People should find it in themselves through their faith and God’s grace to forgive even when forgiving seems like a futile endeavor. Wiesel paradoxically tries to strike a balance of forgiveness and forgetting. He argues that he will not forget nor forgive, but through his experiences, he will not let what he experienced justify contemporary recrimination (as cited in Volf, 2010).[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Reply 1
Hello. This was an interesting prompt read. It gave us the opportunity to critically analyze the concepts of forgiving and forgetting and how they are related. Volf (2010) argues that true forgiveness must entail forgetting of past hurts and pain. He refers to it as redemption from the past. Basically, Volf (2010) implies that we have to forget for us to forgive. Additionally, forgiveness cannot occur without forgetting atrocities from the past. As much as forgiveness requires that people redeem themselves from past unfavorable experiences, we should also forget pains and hurts from the past for us to forgive. Ricoeur (2009) confirms that when we hold on to those painful experiences from the past, we will always get negative feelings of anger and sadness which in turn rekindle the desire to seek revenge.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Reply 2
Hello. Thank you for the discussion post. It was insightful and enabled me to look at forgiving and forgetting from a different perspective. In your post, you argued that we can forgive without forgetting. Wiesel advanced this argument by stating that justice without memory is unjust and false (as cited in Volf, 2010). Inasmuch as we would like to forgive people, we cannot force ourselves to forget what they did. Forgetting is not something we do by choice; it is a process that takes time. Getting memories off our head is not easy. What we should strive to do is forgiving without necessarily striving to forget. Ricoeur (2009) observes that forgetting occurs at its own time and we cannot force it. However, there is a lot we can do to hasten the forgetting process. Spending time with the offender and trying to build trust with them goes a long way in hastening forgetting. The claim that forgiveness only occurs after forgetting is thus fallacious; we can forgive without forgetting. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Ricoeur, P. (2009). Memory, history, forgetting. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Volf, M. (2010). Exclusion & embrace: A theological exploration of identity, otherness, and reconciliation. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press.


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Nursing has become an increasingly popular career choice due to the current level of demand for competent nurses in a wide variety of different fields (ex: dialysis). One way in which colleges have attempted to increase the number of applicants to their nursing courses has been through the implementation of online and blended learning options alongside their traditional classroom lessons. By making lessons more convenient and easily accessible, this would make students more amenable to enrolling in particular colleges that offer this option (McCutcheon, Lohan, Traynor, & Martin, 2015).

The advantage of this method for nursing students lies in its level of convenience and versatility since it enables them to learn at their own pace. Working students and individuals with children find this learning option more appealing since it gives them a significant amount of free time to handle activities outside of academic work. Despite the advantages of this method of earning a nursing degree, there have been several criticisms regarding the quality of education that nursing students gain from this type of learning experience. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]
Riley and Schmid (2016) helped to summarize the arguments involved by stating that nursing requires a more practical than primarily academic approach. While it is true that nurses do require extensive background medical knowledge, this should be backed by extensive hands-on training. Failure to do so results in nurses that are medically knowledgeable but lack the necessary experience to be considered as technically competent in implementing proper medical procedures on a patient (Riley & Schmidt, 2016).

It is based on this that this paper will explore the various issues surrounding blended learning and online learning environments for nursing students to determine the pros and cons of each method of teaching and determine their capacity to create technical competence and practical expertise. It is the assumption of this study that a learning environment that is centered primarily on online education is unable to produce the necessary technical and practice knowledge needed to create a competent nurse.

Statement of the Problem
This situation involving blended and online learning environments showcase the current gaps in understanding when it comes to the quality of education received and the type of nurses that graduate from such a program. While it is true that people should have the option of a more convenient method of learning, it should not come at the cost of the quality of nurses that are to work in many of today’s hospitals. Due to the nature of nursing, practical and technical experience are important facilitators of developing a nurse’s capabilities. Medical knowledge can only go so far when it comes to enabling a nurse to operate efficiently and effectively within a hospital environment. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

As such, the current ambiguity of the quality of nursing education has created a problem wherein many hospitals do not trust the skills of nurses that graduate from particular programs. In this study involving nurses and long distance learning, this issue plays out and creates this situation where students graduate from an online nursing program only to find out that they are not being accepted into programs of many hospitals due to their perceived lack of practical and technical skills.

Guiding Questions
1.) Does a blended learning or primarily online learning environment produce the necessary levels of technical expertise and competency needed from a nurse?
2.) What are the measures of skill and technical ability when it comes a nursing graduate of a traditional learning environment?

Research Strategy
To research this topic, I will draft an outline of the different parts the paper should contain, what arguments should go into each aspect and determine what sort of academic resources I should get to justify the claims that each argument makes. One of the strategies that I will employ to locate the necessary research materials is to utilize the online search function of the college’s library to find any relevant books or previously submitted works that the library may contain. The second strategy will use the university’s subscription to online academic journal databases such as Jstore and EBSO to find academic journals that have examined the issue. By using both methods, I am likely to find all the information I would need to complete the paper.

Justification Behind the Research
Based on what has been presented so far, it is necessary to examine how online and blended nursing programs operate and determine which programs are more likely to be accepted by hospitals. Through this analysis, potential long distance learning nursing students will be able to know what sort of programs they should enroll themselves rather than blindly enter one only to be disappointed with it after they graduate. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Reference List
McCutcheon, K., Lohan, M., Traynor, M., & Martin, D. (2015). A systematic review evaluating the impact of online or blended learning vs. face-to-face learning of clinical skills in   undergraduate nurse education. Journal Of Advanced Nursing71(2), 255-270.

Riley, K., & Schmidt, D. (2016). Does online learning click with rural nurses? A qualitative         study. Australian Journal Of Rural Health24(4), 265-270.


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The Islamic culture encompasses the shared values among people who profess the Islamic faith. It cuts across all the six inhabitable continents. This research paper explores the people who fall under this culture, their language, whether the culture is collective or individualistic or both and high power and low power distance within the culture. It also establishes whether the culture is polychromic or monochromic, feminine or masculine, low uncertainty or high uncertainty avoidance and the non-verbal cue that characterize the Islamic culture.

The early Islam communities in Medina and Mecca spoke Arabic, which explains why the Koran, the holy book of Islam, and other early Muslim writings are in written in Arabic. Equally important, all Islam are required to recite the Koran in Arabic (Williams, 2008). On the contrary, most Muslims in the world do not speak Arabic. To put it differently, it is believed that only 20% of the world’s Muslims speak Arabic and the others speak their native language depending on their global geopolitical position.
Despite the fact that the Islamic culture stresses on the importance of free will at the individual level, collectivism is explicitly exhibited within Islam communities. In other words, Muslim lives according to the Koran teachings which emphasize on taking care of others and maintaining unity for combined wellbeing. In addition, Islam is a high power distance culture where they respect and obey their superiors without question. Furthermore, the culture is a polychromic where people like to do multiple things at the same time. Notably, the idea of masculinity has prevailed in the Islam culture. In this line, men are considered to be human paradigm and women subordinated .To clarify, a woman is expected to show respect and obey men in the Islam culture (Williams, 2008)[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Without doubt, Islam is a high uncertainty avoidance culture, which means they do not accept new ideas and newness into their cultural activities. Precisely, they strictly follow their mode of living and adhere to guidelines of Koran without deviating. In particular, maintaining social distance is very crucial when talking to Muslim woman (Williams, 2008). Notably, if she happens to take a step backward, it indicates she is not comfortable with the conversation. A person visiting an Islam based region should know it is considered impolite to pass something to a person using the left hard.

Islam culture has a dressing code for men as well as women. Of course, this not only serves the purpose of protecting their culture, but also promotes decent dressing and manners. Equally important, it helps to form a barrier between men and women and promotes respect, dignity and modesty. In particular, Islamic women are supposed to wear a hijab, which is a covering dress that must hide their body apart from the hands and face (Aziz, 2010). Most importantly, it must not be tight or translucent to create body images that are vivid. In other words, it must not provoke opposite gender’s attention. Equally important, the women garment should not be worn for popularity purposes or vanity and it should not have a close resemblance to clothing that are specifically worn by non-Muslims.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

On the contrary, men clothing should conceal the body part from the naval to the knees. Furthermore, other than prohibition of men to wear clothes that are similar to women garments, their clothing must not be see-through as well as tight. Moreover, they should not wear clothing that is specifically worn by non-Muslim. Most importantly, an Islamic man is not allowed to wear golden jewellery and silk garments (Aziz, 2010).[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

There are certain important rituals that form the basis of how Muslim worships their God, Allah. Firstly, Koran forms a very important aspect of Muslims worship and is recited every time when conducting prayers. Indeed, this holy book not only provides Allah’s revelation to Muslims but also gives guidance throughout all aspects of life. Secondly, Muslims prays five times in a day which helps them to mentally and physically take a break from their daily work to unite with Allah. In addition, Muslims observe Ramadhan, which requires them to refrain from drinking, sex and eating (Volf, 2012). Of course, this helps them to engage in charity work and control ill habits like anger and gossip. Equally important, Mecca pilgrimage, the Hajj must be done by every financially and physically able Muslim, which helps to unite Muslims from every nationality and race in worshipping God. Muslims have two holy days which are the two Eid festivals. Precisely, Eid-al-Adha is celebrated throughout Hajj days while Eid-ul-Fitr is celebrated upon Ramadhan completion.

Aziz, R. (2010). Hijab–the Islamic dress code: Its historical development, evidence from sacred sources and views of selected Muslim scholars. Cape Town, South Africa

Volf, M. (2012). Do we worship the same God: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in dialogue. Grand Rapids, Mich: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co

Williams, J. (2008). Islam: Understanding the history, beliefs, and culture. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers


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Based on the diagnosis, Mr. C. could be subject to a myriad health complication from obesity. Obese individuals have weight levels that are harmful to their general health. Obesity is caused by the accumulation of excess fats in the body. In addition to this, it is also caused by lack of physical exercise. Individuals with obesity have a Body Mass Index (BMI) of more than 30 kg/m2. Other risk factors include genetic make-up, endocrine disorders, hospital medications, and mental illnesses. The mitigation efforts instituted to remedy the ailment are largely influenced by the amount of weight which is shed off by the patient.

Given his high blood pressure, Mr. C. is highly likely to develop heart diseases. Studies show that high levels of glucose in the human body increase the chances of suffering heart diseases (Mokdad, et al., 2003). Heart diseases occur when the excessive fats accumulate in the blood vessels. This accumulation hinders the flow of blood in the body. In addition, the high levels of cholesterol in the body further result in breathing problems. The high levels of cholesterol in the blood also lower oxygen concentration in the human body. Given his high blood pressure levels, Mr. C. projects an increased risk of stroke. High blood pressure levels increase the likelihood of the occurrence of strokes in the human body.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

In addition to heart diseases, he is also at risk of suffering from kidney disease. This refers to the culmination of the high glucose levels in the blood, which enhances the osmotic imbalance in the kidneys. The high levels of triglycerides in the body may lead to skin complications. Individuals with obesity are more likely to develop rashes in the body. Skin infections are also more common in cases of obesity given the blockage of the sweat pores, which pre-empts the efficient aeration of the skin epidermis.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Response 1
Furthermore, the blockage of the pores by the high levels of fat in the subject pre-empts the successful excretion of waste material from the body through the skin. This further causes nerve poisoning (Mokdad, et al., 2003). Nerve poisoning is often known as neuropathy and is observed majorly in individuals with obesity. Neuropathy inspires the numbness of the feet.

Response 2
Mr. C’s request for bariatric surgery is well informed given his symptoms. Bariatric surgery is a physical weight reduction surgical procedure. The procedure entails the medically instituted reduction of the amount of food, which can be held by the stomach. It further reinforces nutrient malabsorption. In the bariatric surgery process, a stomach pouch is created, and it acts as the food deposit point.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Response 3
He should engage the bariatric procedure since his BMI exceeds the 35 mark, which provides for the standard mark of individuals who can undertake the operation. In addition, the prevalence of symptoms such as sleep apnea and his inability to achieve a sustainable weight loss allows the engagement of the stomach surgery to curtail the weight increase in the patient.

Response 4
Mr. C. should engage in exercise in the times between 5 a.m. and 7 a.m. This is before the engagement of a meal. The exercise is an extension of the need for the patient to reinforce his health management initiatives. Furthermore, the patient should engage food that does not constitute high levels of sugar. Likewise, Mr. C. should not consume food such as beans given that they inspire the extreme production of Hydrochloric acid in the body. The hydrochloric acid affects the ulcer wounds and causes pain to the victim.

Response 5
In so far, the patient projects positive functional health patterns. The inclinations towards the consumption of magnesium hydroxide succinctly allow the mitigation of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, which accumulates after the meals. Magnesium hydroxide neutralizes the acid in the body and curtails the levels of food bloat in the stomach. Based on his diagnosis, Mr. C. projects positive health perceptions. Mr. C’s elimination perceptions project a normalcy. He regularly engages in bowel activities. However, given his weight Mr. C. projects a loath for exercise activities. Mr. C further projects negative inclinations in the nutritional-metabolic functional health pattern. He projects poor eating habits which inspire the development of obesity.

Response 6
Despite Mr. C’s positive health perception, he is still subject to several health problems. Firstly, the consumption of magnesium hydroxide before and after the meals stands to cause the patient food poisoning. Alternately, the consumption of the 300g of sucralfate should only be consumed after the consumption of the meal and not during bedtime. This is because it will constitute a double dosage. In addition, this poses a risk of poisoning to the patient. Given that peptic ulcer is caused by hunger, it is inappropriate for Mr. C. to persistently align himself with a food schedule that limits the amounts of food that he eats. Essentially, the schedule should be divided into smaller time intervals of food consumption. This will ensure that even though Mr. C consumes little amounts of food, he will be subject to continuous eating and hence will be able to avoid hunger complications.
Medication Administration Schedule 
7:00 am, 12:00 pm and 8:00 pm – Mealtimes.
Magnesium hydroxide – 2 tablets, 3 hours after each meal.
Ranitidine (300g) – at 10:00 pm.
Sucralfate – 10:00 pm.

Mokdad, A. H., S.Ford, E., Brownman, B. A., Dertz, W. H., Vinicor, F., Bales, V. S., & Marks, J. S. (2003). Prevalence of Obesity, Diabetes, and Obesity-Related Health Risk Factors, 2001. JAMA, 289 (1), 76-79.


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Resident-to-Resident Elder Mistreatment (R-REM)

Humanity dictates that people take care of each other especially during times of ill health. Old people are also taken care of in the long-term care facilities, and this provides a common location in which they get to meet. Just like other people. The interactions usually have different outcomes, and that makes it critical that their behaviors are well monitored and managed. Resident to Resident Elder Mistreatment is dealt with in different ways. The objective of this paper will be the different ways through which nurses respond to Resident to resident elder mistreatment. This paper will discuss the different responses provided by nurses in the long-term care facilities and reasons for such responses.

Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to look at the cases of resident abuse by staff and the resident aggression towards the nursing home staff. Many times, the patients often show acts of aggression towards the nursing staff, and this calls for different responses. Depending on the different illnesses suffered by the residents, they usually subject the nursing staff to different acts of aggression. Most of the residents suffering from behavioral disturbances usually live close to each other, and that triggers negative sexual, verbal, and physical interactions. In the process of these interactions, possible effects include psychological or physical stress to the recipients.  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

This study was conducted in five nursing homes in New York and relied on the interviews provided by 282 certified nursing assistants in five urban nursing homes. The study requested that every CAN reports how he/she responds to R-REM for whom they are held primarily responsible. This needed the staff to conduct a private interview with their CNAs concerning the behaviors of every resident being studied. The study relied on 16-minute interviews and was obtained from all the participants. It would also be vital to note that the Institutional Revenue Board of the Weill Cornell Medical College approved of this study.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The study compared the data obtained from these interviews in the different areas to determine the best way forward. It found different responses from the interviewed nursing staff. The responses ranged from physically intervening or separation of the residents, talking to the residents calmly to resolve the situation, no intervention whatsoever, verbally intervening to defuse the situation, notifying the nurses, and documenting the patient’s behavior logs. The study chose to use a structured questionnaire in which the respondents were allowed to report up to three responses for any witnessed behaviors. Based on this study, it was found that 51 percent chose to physically separate/intervening, 50 percent talked to the residents calmly to settle them down, 39 percent offered no intervention, 38 percent verbally intervened to defuse the situation, 13 percent chose to notify the nurse, and only 4 percent chose to document the behavior in log (Rosen, et al., 2016).

Based on the results from the interviews, it was found that the most common response to Elder mistreatment was physically intervening. The nurses on site chose to separate the elders during the incidents. This was the most likely result as it proved the fastest way through which they de-escalate the situation. The second most popular response involved talking to residents with the aim of calming them down. While this was also a popular choice, it tends to be slower than separating the residents. An average number of nursing staff usually offered no intervention. They would let the residents argue so that they sort their issues. Another section of the nurses chose to intervene by use of verbal intervention as they defused the situation. These nurses usually engaged both parties and attempted to make restore peace. A very small section of the residents notified the nurses while the rest chose to document the behavior of such residents in their logs. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]]

Rosen, T., Lachs, M. S., Teresi, J., Eimicke, J., Haitsma, K. V., & Pillemer, K. (2016). Staff-reported strategies for prevention and management of resident-to-resident elder mistreatment in long-term care facilities. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 28(1), 1-13. Retrieved October 15, 2016


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To solve the multitude of complex problems facing the United States and the world as a whole, the IOM calls upon the experts to present possible solutions for discussion, debate, and examination. Thus, in a bid to assess and transform the nursing profession, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Institute of Medicine launched a two-year research on the future of nursing. Through the appointment of a committee, a report containing recommendations for an action-oriented blueprint for the future of nursing was produced (Kakonge, 2015). This includes:

1.    Nurses practice fully in accordance with their education and training
Nurses have great potential to form innovative strategies that aim at improving the healthcare system. However, it is worth noting that several historical, regulatory and policy barriers limit nurses in generating a widespread transformation. These barriers include health care system fragmentation, high turnover rates, and difficulties in transitioning from school to nursing practice among other demographic challenges (IOM, 2011). Thus, the federal government through Federal Trade Commission (FTC) should promote reforms on scope-of-practice laws by sharing and providing incentives for adoption of best practices.

2.    Nurses should achieve a higher level of education and training through an improved education system that promotes seamless academic progression.
Nurses need to undergo improved education system and training to attain the requisite competencies to deal with the evolving healthcare system and complex patient needs. The education system should consist opportunities for seamless transition to higher degree programs- from Licensed Practical Nurse(LPN) to the Associates (ADN) and Bachelor’s (BSN) degrees: to masters, Ph.D., and doctor of nursing practice(DNP)degrees. In addition, physicians and other health professionals should educate the nurses both as students and in their careers (IOM, 2011).
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3.    Nurses should collaborate with physicians and other health professionals, in redesigning health care in the United States.
In a transformed health care system, strong leadership is critical; thus, the nursing profession must produce leaders throughout the system. These leaders must partner-up with physicians and other health professionals while being accountable for their actions in delivering quality care. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

4.    Effective workforce planning and policymaking require making better data collection and information structure (IOM, 2011)
By collecting data on the number and type of health professionals available, to cater and meet future needs, transformation in the health care system is achieved by balancing skills and perspective among physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals.

Importance of the IOM “future of nursing”
Due to the varying level of education and competencies, licensed practical nurses practice in hospitals, schools, homes, private health clinics, battlefield, community and public health centers, nursing homes while others conduct research, innovate, and invent new ways of providing care to the patients and promoting health. The IOM “Future of Nursing” report had the following benefits to the nurses and nursing profession:
1.    Removing barriers to practice and care through which nurses and certified midwives numerous privileges in Arizona such as independent practice have and administering prescription to patients.
2.   For nurses to lead and collaborate; they should be accorded a broad range of opportunities. Through Arizona Organization of Nurse Executives, and Independent Nurse Practitioner Forum opportunities to redesign and improve health systems to be granted to nurses to lead and manage collaborative efforts with physicians and other members of the healthcare profession through research.
3.    Implement nurse residency programs. It supports the transition of the nurse from school to practice by ensuring they complete their formal residency program before assuming Registered Nurse (RN) role (ABC, 2006).
4.    Increase the proportion of nurses with a baccalaureate degree to 80% by 2020. Nurse leaders should work together across all schools to increase the percentage of nurses with a baccalaureate degree, more so they should collaborate with private and public funders, employers to facilitate funding and increase the diversity of student to form a workforce that can meet dynamic of the population.
5.    The number of nurses undertaking the doctorate should be double the size to meet the increasing needs.
6.    Ensure that nurses engage in lifelong learning.
7.    Prepare and enable nurses to lead change to advance health.
8. Building infrastructure for the collection and analysis of inter-professional health care workforce data [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Role of state-based coalition in advancing the goals of future nursing
For nurses to practice in line with their education and training there should be an amendment to the Medicare program to allow clinical nurses prescription privileges. In addition, they should extend Medicaid fees for primary care nurses who perform same services as an advanced practice registered nurses. The U.S. Secretary of Education, state and private funders should issue loans and grants for second-degree nursing students while ensuring that the Workforce Commission membership comprises of sufficient nursing expertise (Randolph, Hrabe & Compton, 2011).

Arizona State is fortunate as it has the most liberal scopes of practice for NP in the US. Thus, the state has the initiative to support legislature in removal/elimination of collaboration from existing statutes where certified clinical nurses are granted prescriptive privileges while providing CRNAs with statutory authority to function in line with their academic qualification (Randolph, Hrabe & Compton, 2011).
The state should take the initiative of reviewing existing and proposed state regulations concerning nursing to loot out those that do not contribute t the health and safety of the public while amending unduly restrictive regulations to allow advanced practice registered nurse to provide care to the patients in all capacities for which they qualify. Through these initiatives, nurses can practice independently while operating private practices. It ensures patients access health care with ease.

Advancement in the health care system is hindered by factors such as high rates of turnover among nurses, difficulties in transitioning from school to practice, aging workforce, regulatory barriers, and fragmentation of the health care system. To overcome high turnover rate of Registered Nurses should help the new graduate transition from school to practice. More and more nurses should enroll to replace the aging workforce while ensuring they learn a great deal from them. The federal government should promote effective reforms that aid in collecting and dissemination of best practices across the country and funding their adoption.

In conclusion, US have the opportunity to transform the health care system, and nurses play a significant role in this transformation. However, this requires the collaboration of government, businesses, health care organizations, professional association, the insurance industry, and the nurses. To achieve the recommendations presented in this report, licensing bodies, philanthropic organizations, consumer advocacy organizations, and educational institutions must work together to provide improved health and healthcare system while availing seamless care which is affordable to all.

OM (Institute of Medicine). 2011. The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health.
Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

The Advisory Board Company. (2006). Transitioning new graduates to hospital practice profiles 
of nurse residency program exemplars. Washington, D.C: The Advisory Board Company.
Kakonge, D. K. (2015). Education. Opening doors.

Randolph, P., Hrabe, D., & Compton, P. (2011). Arizona Campaign for Action: Arizona Future 
of Nursing Leading Change, Advancing Health.


Sample by My Essay Writer


The basic task as an economist is to explain the patterns in economic growth and development while enabling people to brace themselves for the future based on economic indicator forecasts.  There exist many different ways of quantifying economic growth, and it is in the validity of these measures that an economist’s work is qualified and acceptable even to critics. In practice mainly, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is used (Chang, 2007). However, to bring forth an economic analysis that correctly forecasts economic times, it is important to understand where the facts lie. In most cases, facts will lie in Historic evidence as these are times already lived and the data is well and valid, for instance, the tremendous increase in economic development from as early as the 1800s (Khan et.al, 2007). Another fact is geographical; this gives a clear image of economic progression levels and the differences of the same in different parts of the world. These two facts have addressed economic changes over time and regional disparities in economic development. Together, these facts answer factors that led to the tremendous growth in economic development and why aren’t all regions balanced in matters economic development.
Theories have been advanced in the scholarly world in an attempt to answer these questions.

Ricardian’s theory seeks to measure economic progression regarding quantified outputs of production in an economy (Krugman, et.al, 2015). This argument is plain and lacks in depth to convince economists that production quantities are the measure of economic development. It reduces economies to machines- input and output. Ricardian theory assumes that output is not affected by data or technological advancement across different economies. It is faulted in that it holds all other production factors constant, ceteris paribus, and only looks at the output amount (Krugman, et.al, 2015). In truth, the output is a function of inputs. Inputs of capital and labor and levels of technological advancement do indeed affect production output.  The ratio of capital to labor determines the marginal efficiency of capital and the marginal productivity of labor which in turn affects the production quantities. Ricardo’s theory blatantly fails to address economic disparities in the sense of what production outputs should be considered in the determination of economic development as different regions are endowed differently. In Africa, for instance, mineral and agricultural outputs would be quantified in kilograms whereas, in the middle-east, oil production would be quantified in liters (Khan Et.al, 2007).  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

How then would we compare two regions that are differently endowed and subsequently differ in production quantities and sufficiently make a conclusion about economic progression? It would make more economic sense if economic development were measured by the overall increase gross domestic product which is the summed up value of all goods and services produced in an economy. It would have been more viable for Ricardian to compare economies based on monetary values of production over absolute production quantities. The theory’s weakness is further underlined by its inability to convince economic historians. It does not address the factors that led to an increase in human capital and technological superiority in different economies. A few scholars, Pomeranz, attempted to advance the works of Ricardian and claimed that the increase in production in the 1800s was due to new resource discoveries in the Americas and England (Krugman, et.al, 2015). Pomeranz’s work was analytically weak as it implied that it was not only in the Americas and Europe where resources were discovered. If indeed, economic development in the 1800s was a child of resource discovery, why then did less developed countries emerge yet they carried a heavy endowment of resources that were also under discovery (Krugman, et.al, 2015).

The unsatisfactory explanation advanced by the Ricardian theory, a prominent neo-classical economist, led to the scholarly effort that tried to explain the ambiguity that surrounded Ricardian and peers work. Ricardian’s work is an overview of neo-classical economists view. These economists are a supply-demand, output quantity kind of mind. But, factors that lead to economic growth and development cannot just come from resource discovery that would magically boost output production (Khan et.al, 2007). There must be something outside resource development that led to the accelerated economic growth in the 1800s which has not been experienced ever since.  Development economists thoroughly questioned the validity of neo-classical economists work as it failed further to explain the problem of the Less Developed Countries which underscore economic disparity (Chang, 2007). In fact, Robert Solow, an American economist, hypothesized that an increase in physical inputs only accounted for a small part of observable increases in output.  The work that followed this resistance led to a breed of development economists who shifted focus from resource endowment to look onto how to improve and realize full potential in economies. With this new light, several efforts were put forth to enlighten means and ways to boost economic potential while closing the gap on economic disparities. Among them were infrastructural spending, deregulation, tax cuts and tax rebates (Khan Et.al, 2007). Infrastructural spending advocates for governmental efforts, both central and devolved governments, to put in place physical structures the facilities that are necessary for commerce and social prosperity. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Infrastructure boosts productivity by promoting efficiency and ease in doing business. Tax cuts and tax rebates advocate for reduced taxation of the people to increase overall productivity from increased income. Deregulation seeks to achieve a more relaxed environment for doing business. These are older means designed to achieve economic growth and development. It is important to take into consideration that these forms of incentives for economic development only lead to a widening of economic disparities as it is class based. For instance, deregulation is mostly an effort by the societal crème that extends their ease of doing business. To close the gap, it was important to identify the way to get to the grass root and shake up potential in the communities. However, after many decades of pushing forth these older ways, low economic development and continued disparity continue to rock economies the world over. It is in this place that Social capital has become more fashionable, yet has been in existence for over a century, in the recent past as a way to improve economies globally. Attention to social capitalism grew after the Robert Putman’s in “Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community” French economists such as Bourdieu are at the forefront of revolutionizing social change (Putnam, 2000).  Social capital seeks to address economic differences in the society by use of social variables. It is embedded in a reinforcement relationship between communities.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Social capital according to Lyda Hanifan, an author, has been termed as “those intangible assets that count for most in the daily lives of people: namely good will, fellowship, sympathy, and social intercourse among the individuals and families who make up a social unit” (Hanifan, 2011) In another context it has been defined as the network of human relationships that enable people of a particular region to work together. Another describes social capital as a form of economic and social co-operation where social networks and human relationships are at the core, with reciprocation, trust and cooperation being the hallmarks of transactions. Here, production is not a function of own betterment but an effort by agents to produce goods and services for a common interest. These explanations allow only a feel of what is meant by social capital. However, it would be impossible to capture this concept in a way that satisfies everyone.

In light of the tremendous disparity in economic development, social capital seeks to close the gap with overall production aimed at a common interest. Regions endowed differently would now produce to reciprocate the trade in what they lack. At the core of social capital are communities (Putnam, 2000). A community’s vital characteristic should be social capital. Social capital does not stand alone and is often affected by other flows and stocks of capital.  Identifying a community’s capital stock is the first step in spiraling up of these communities. An interaction of different communities’ capital stock forms a network that leads to a spiraling up of economies.

The question that would be asked after such a case for social capital would be, “How effective is social capital in economic development, and if effective, does it lead to sustainable development?” (Emery & Flora, 2006) Looking at a case of internal investment in the form of creation of a new system to enable positive community change, an illustration of the benefits of identifying community capital can result in a rise in capital stock as the community begins building on one another. Capital stock measures accumulation of wealth as opposed to being a need-based measure which would allude to production quantities. The Community Capitals Framework (CCF) comes into play enabling an analytical review of the effectiveness of the development effort (Emery & Flora, 2006). CCF analyzes community economic development in a trickle down (systems) approach that identifies capital interactions and the subsequent results measured in impacts across capitals. The program sought to “reverse patterns of neglect and disinvestments in rural America” HTC was on a mission to reverse the population’s dwindling per-capita income. With the help of National Rural Funders Collaborative (NRFC) who went out of their way to look for partnerships in strategic proposals that would cure, if not alleviate, the vicious cycle under which rural America had come to, brought in three not-for-profit organizations who brought in a total of $75,000 over the following three years and subsequently initiated the HomeTown Competitiveness Program” (Emery & Flora, 2006). The approach used was a strategic one that sought to undo the population and the dipping per capita income for the rural communities on the Great Plains. The three not-for –profit organizations possessed such a unique characteristic that was used independently to form a synergy. Heartland Center for Community Leadership Development had unique strengths in leadership development. RUPRI Center for Rural Entrepreneurship was advantaged in “entrepreneurial development” and the Nebraska Community Foundation displayed an edge over the others in “Community organizations” (Emery & Flora, 2006).

Together, these three organizations had already built place-based strategies. It was advantageous that the leaders of the three groups had roots in rural Nebraska. Above that, these leaders had previously worked together in different capacities, formally and informally for a good number of years (Hudson, 2011). The compatibility in the mission statement of the three organizations and the vast network they possessed in the state and nationally became advantageous. The group maintained a flourishing reputation for integrity and effectiveness being at the core of their stronger values. HTC, which was newly formed, thus maintained advantageous bonding and experience in bridging social capital even as they began to practically put into place the integrated strategy (Emery & Flora, 2006).

The reputation that preceded the three organizations allowed them to be eligible for many grants. In a first wave, HTC received $50,000 in grants in 2002 that was positioned for learning (Hudson, 2011). The team must have done well with this grant as it opened them up for a renewed grant of the same amount in 2003. HTC was well to do with more grants coming their way and the second phase of subsidies was dedicated to supporting collaborative development. It is in this phase that individual strengths of the three organizations were pulled together to bring in a synergy. Therefore, under the collaborative development effort lay “philanthropy to support entrepreneurship through strong local leadership” It is in this phase that HTC formalized its 4-part strategy. The first one is to boost philanthropy and philanthropic efforts to boost community foundations through a re-direction of rural wealth to the community foundation. Secondly;  to curtail migration of youth into cities and towns by actively including them in leadership, entrepreneurship and philanthropy (Hudson, 2011). The third one is to drum up efforts on leadership capacity through inclusive leadership development. The fourth approach is to build on local assets by strengthening local economies through innovative business platforms and opportunities and an intergeneration of business continuity (Hudson, 2011).

The NFRC using CCF was able to analyze the use of community capitals in transformative strategies. It is in this CCF framework that the NFRC was able to analyze the effectiveness of the investment it had made to alleviate rural poverty through capacity building on every front such as; leadership, innovation and entrepreneurship that would lead to increased assets in the rural families and subsequently to the community (Emery & Flora, 2006). The approach by NFRC is one that provides economists with two things: One, the effectiveness of social capital in building on local assets hence economic growth and development. The second one is how to analyze the outcome of community-based investments (Emery & Flora, 2006). It is important to note that CCF moves away from the traditional production model and delves into the capacity building on every front from leadership to philanthropy to entrepreneurship. How effective then was CCF as an analytical tool for economic development?[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The focus will be on HTC’s use of CCF to document how many rural communities’ decline had been reversed by one community’s strategy. In reality and in most communities it becomes progressively difficult to mobilize political capital that would come in aid of a decline in financial capital following industry losses in a community or closure of many businesses leading to a continued decline of human and social capital as one leads to the next: lack of political will leads to capital declines forming a vicious cycle of desperation and despair (Emery & Flora, 2006). In an almost perfect display of private and public collaborations, HTC was out to reverse the vicious cycle and promote a “spiraling-up” (Hudson, 2011). How effective were these partnerships in Valley Country, Nebraska where the works of HTC were centered? An incredible degree of integrated and collaborative strategies was in play and led to an increase in community capitals in a system of interactive community development. Was the entry strategy that sought to identify key investments in social capital as the focal point for community change effective?

According to NRFC, there are seven components of social/community capital: cultural, natural, human, social, political, financial, and built capitals. The core of NFRC’s work was the assets and not needs with a focus on investments. One is that Natural Capital refers to assets that come with particular regions. The endowment of these regions that span from natural resources, geographic isolation, weather differences (Hudson, 2011). The second on is that cultural capital influences the way people “see the world” It is in this kind of capital that creativity and influence are birthed and influence breeds leadership as it is of the influence that individuals choose what voices to listen to (Liu, 2010). The third point is human capital: this is where skill, expertise, and ability of individuals to develop their resources and reach out for more resources come into play. This is where leadership ability lies for persons that can lead across divides (Liu, 2010). Social capital is the fourth point: this refers to the networks of social relationships among people that dictate empathy, sympathy, etc. It is in this form of capital that; people can work together and tolerate each other (Liu, 2010). Another point is political capital influence power and access to power, influences ability to get resources on a need basis, that is, connection (Liu, 2010). Financial capital is the financial resources that are ready for investment in the community to enable capacity-building, business development and to support entrepreneurship. On the other hand, built capital is the tangible capital that includes infrastructure, and this is the form of capital that supports all the other forms of social capital (Hudson, 2011).

CCF was a wonderful way to analyze the success of community-based strategies. However, it failed to convince others whose entry point would differ as it sought to show increased capacities in projects whose strategies focused on vital entry points such as human, social and financial capital (Ocampo, 2008). CCF advocated that an increase in assets from this forms of capital led to a subsequent increase in other forms of capital. Critics were made of people who had determined that the increase in assets, although helpful to the community, lacked in impacting the overall capacity of the community. It was the works of individuals such as Guiterrez-Montez that established a flow of assets across capitals (Ocampo, 2008). His work, for instance, advocated for “human capital invested in a project leads to increases in the stock of assets building on assets leading to an upward spiral/ “success on success’’ and was supported further by the study of HTC in Valley County. (Emery & Flora, 2006)

The study at HTC showed that capacity could not be measured by stock asset increases but needed to be measured from an increase of asset stocks in the vital/entry capitals. It was true for the spiral down as was for the spiral up. In the periods of spiral-downs, all community capitals declined and generated a feeling of despair among members of the community (MacKinnon & Cumbers, 2007). In a spiral-down, all forms of capital slowly degenerated as human capital was eroded as people moved to try and make a living. The inability to make a substantive living led to a decline in financial capital. Political capital, in periods of decline, shifted from the once prestigious influence of power to an attempt to boost reliance based on commodity programs. Infrastructure depreciated and therefore the functioning of business activities was undermined. The Spiral-down is a confirmatory practical experience to the theory of cumulative causation by Gunnar Myrdal which states that “The place that loses assets, for whatever reason, will continue to lose them through system effects” and the vice versa is also true, thus, a spiral-up would reinforce asset growth enabling asset growth (MacKinnon & Cumbers, 2007). [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

The contention in CCF lies in whether social capital as the best entry point. CCF is a concept that embraces and speaks to teamwork. However, how realistic is it in today’s economy and larger cities? How sociable are people a decade after NMRC in Valley County, Nebraska? What is of importance to note is that Valley County Nebraska in itself provided a ready environment for a change following previous activity such as a tax option that had been presented locally whose aim was to create new jobs through a commitment of resources and personnel (MacKinnon & Cumbers, 2007). The community foundation in Nebraska, the Nebraska Community Foundation, had initiated the Valley County

Foundation Fund. It leaves a question whether this would be reciprocal able strategy elsewhere in the world and does it yield sustainable development. Analytical weakness is seen in CCF’s measurement of economic growth as ‘impact on society.’ It is important to note that impact can be positive or negative. Is a negative impact included into the measure? Again, what about the impact that is not tangible or felt right away? How is that to be incorporated?

CCF seems more theoretical over practical. Underlying weaknesses make it difficult to reciprocate the model.NMRC was centered on three roles: leadership and capacity building, capturing funds from the transfer of wealth, economic development and entrepreneurship. Even with social capital as the strategic entry point, political capital that stems from leadership and capacity building created a breed of power brokers, connections to resources and influence. It, therefore, would take a noble leader in modern day communities to disregard political bias as this is the only way that economic disparity can be curtailed. It is in the power of the political elect to equitably distribute wealth and resources for the spiral up to help close the gap.

Valley County is an ideal situation. NMRC had a substantial boost in their efforts receiving grants of up to $ 50,000 twice and additional grants (Hudson, 2011). Valley County brought with it an environment that spoke to readiness for a change. It is the reality of many communities that the gap between the rich and the have-nots is widening. So, moving outside Nebraska, is social capital the entry point in catering to the needs of the community even as the community seeks to build on assets?

Outside of Nebraska, CCF should seek to answer the following question: how are good institutions formed, how would a different setting affect the institutional arrangement that would drive economic growth and development (Emery & Flora, 2006). The problem with this literature is that does not shed any light on how NMRC strategy can be reciprocated in settings that are not as ideal as that of Valley County. It is a literature work that does not review communities where human capital is made up of purely unskilled labour, where the needs of the members of the community must be addressed before building on assets, where people are highly unmotivated from the vicious cycle of despair (MacKinnon & Cumbers, 2007). It is a literature work based on a more developed community where leadership strategies are already in place. If fails to address communities where the rule of the jungle applies.

The minimal regard for infrastructural capital underpins another weakness. If at all spiraling-up creates mutual reinforcement for communities and promotes economic growth for all communities, isn’t infrastructural development a means to open up isolated areas? To infect other communities with the spirit of asset build up, it is important for cultural exchanges to be initiated and promoted. Without good road networks and mass transportation means, that is, public transport, how else will cultural exchange take place and how will a community infect another for overall spiraling-up? Cultural exchange is where it all begins. Because it is in a culture, that influence is embedded. The influence of the voices to be heard and listened to which subsequently affect the voices that we listen to in every area of our lives and subsequently determines innovation and creativity is a product of cultural capital. It is of importance to understand how “stimulating public transport impacts Community Economic Development”( Hudson, 2011).

“I believe the primary purpose of the economy is to improve the welfare of members of the community while filling the gap in economic disparities” (Hudson, 2011) argues that “it is inevitable to avoid uneven distribution/ regional problems in capitalist economies; regional problems are unavoidable. Indeed it has been argued that uneven distribution is a necessary part of capitalist development.” For a capitalist economy, it would be impossible to avoid uneven development. Hudson terms the inability to avoid uneven development as a genetic encode or a structural necessity to successfully accumulate capital. In essence, a capitalist economy does not promote the welfare of its citizens as labor is class based and production is centrally placed- production should take place somewhere undermining the inability to cut transportation costs in the movement of resources to areas of placed production. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

If indeed labor is class based, wage rate disparities must be magnified further separating “the haves, and the have nots” Necessary placement of production activities undermines the importance of “production anywhere” that accompanies a bridge in the gap that separates the rich and the poor. It is in this form of production dictatorship that some communities are embellished of human capital and financial capital. Isn’t this what has led to urban sprawl and creation of “ghost town”? (MacKinnon & Cumbers, 2007) The start of a widening economic gap began with private capital and the need to create profits that prompted the urge to go into areas where production was necessarily placed leaving out the rest of the communities. But why couldn’t the government intervene? The disparity is as a result of unintentional, collaborative activity between the private and the public sector that foresaw the abandoning of places that could potentially become production sites leading these places into being “left behind” as the other places developed. In these places, there was no opportunity for the community members to improve in welfare. The means of improved income had been stripped away and therefore there was no opportunity to close the economic gap.

The overwhelming evidence on the effect of capitalist economies and widening economic disparities is the reason that led a shift in the UK from liberal to an interventionist state in the 1920s /1930s (Hanifan, 2011). This was a policy change that centered itself on uneven economic development as the barrier to accumulating capital and accelerating overall economic growth that birthed mass unemployment and many places writhed in poverty. It is in this period that regulation shifted from a state to a regional effort. A more devolved system of economic wealth distribution emerged and a social economy that offers prospective that is more human-centered and socially oriented. In light of the factors that erode social welfare and widen the gap between the rich and the poor, in a business set up, I would ensure an equitable wage rate. As the head of the business, the benefits advanced to me would be minimized to create business wealth and promote employment for the members of the community.

I would aim to fall off the wagon and set up a business where the market uptake would be substantive yet located outside the city. In this, economic development would be devolved, and with an improved availability of resources and a closed need gap, welfare would be boosted. The above are noble moves but do they promote community continuity of the business? Does the initiative set up outside cities promote sustainable development? An effort towards answering these concerns would mean that I recognize team culture. In a team context, it is easier to enhance continuity. It is easier to promote entrepreneurship that would enable sustained development, a social capital initiative disguised in human capital.

Conclusively, social capital closes the gap on economic disparities. But social capital structures need to be put in place that cut across all communities that veer off the idealness of Valley County, Nebraska.

Chang, H.-J. (2007). Institutional change and economic development. New York, NY: United Nations University Press.

Emery & Flora (Spring, 2006) COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT: Journal of the Community Development Society, Vol. 37, No. 1

Hanifan, L. J. (2011). The rural school community center. Philadelphia.

Hudson, R. (2011). Regional Problem and social Economy: Conference on sustainable community business. Cape Breton.

Khan, S. R., Khan, S. R., Rifaqat, Z., & Kazmi, S. (2007). Harnessing and Guiding social capital for rural development. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Krugman, P. R., Obstfeld, M., & Melitz, M. J. (2015). International Trade: Theory and Policy.

Liu, G. G., Zhang, S., & Zhang, Z. (2010). Investing in human capital for economic development in China. Singapore: World Scientific.

MacKinnon, D., & Cumbers, A. (2007). Introduction to economic geography: Globalization, uneven development, and place. Harlow: Prentice Hall.

Ocampo, J. A., & Vos, R. (2008). Uneven economic development. London: Zed.

Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon & Schuster.


Sample by My Essay Writer

“… leaders have an obligation, to their family (following), to their Creator, and to their species, to keep working at their own self-differentiation” (Friedman, 2011, pp. 233).
Through self-differentiation, leadership seeks to gain followers who are yet to follow or quit. There is no emotional coercion whatsoever about the leader one wants to follow.  From the quote, it evident that it is entirely up to an individual to choose their path. Leadership and congregational togetherness in a family do not have to involve anyone giving up their individuality. A leader does not necessarily exert their will on the followers. Similarly, the fostered interdependence gained by the leader should not be used to control how the entire system reasons and works.

Friedman (2011) explains that in a system where a leader seeks to be self-differentiated, he gives the people around him a chance to serve their God in a true way. In such a case, the followers automatically choose their path without following blindly. Also, self means independence, self-awareness, and liberty.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

As a leader, one has an obligation to serve God. One should be available to their family at all times and help them cope with their emotional baggage. Such supports ensure that the family is in a sound place of thought, consequently allowing them function in total efficiency. Mr. Love found himself in an awkward spot when his wife felt that he was closing her out (Friedman, 2011). When they solve their marital issues, the couple, together with the congregation which had started to disintegrate, come back together in the formation of a stronger family group. This quote encourages individuals to have a personal willingness to discover a more personal outlook on life. It encourages personality and self-awareness in a world where most people choose to follow the masses.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Reply 1
Thank you for your insightful quote. Indeed, the quote seeks to expand knowledge on the right leadership in a church. Such a leader can steer their organization through the waves and tides of conflicts. Church leadership is not easy or enjoyable as it may seem. It is a calling that requires leaders to strike an intricate balance between their personal interests, interests of the congregation, and those of the church. Conflicts arise as church leaders try to achieve this balance and it is how they go about these conflicts that define the type of leaders they are. As such, Friedman (2011) recommends self-differentiated. Friedman (2011) insists that a self-differentiated leader can retain emotional control in periods of immense pressures such as during conflicts. When coupled with knowledge of systematic family therapy, a self-differentiated leadership can overcome most of the challenges that arise in their organizations.

Reply 2
Hello. Your insightful quote brings into perspective a critical aspect of leadership, emotional control. Leadership based on emotional consciousness and control is called self-differentiated leadership. In this leadership model, there is emotional freedom. The leader does not lead by coercion or force but by logic and democracy (Friedman, 2011). Also, they give their followers the opportunity to choose what they feel is right instead of coercing them emotionally (Friedman, 2011). A church leader has an obligation to serve both God and the church members. Coercion and failure to uphold freedom and democracy in the congregation are against God’s will. Self-differentiated leaders are likely to face fewer conflicts in their leadership. Mr. Love’s leadership failed due to his lack of emotional control and consciousness (Friedman, 2011). After reading this prompt, all individuals should strive to be self-differentiated leaders when they get the chance to lead.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Friedman, E. (2011). Generation to generation: Family process in church and synagogue (pp. 242-249). New York, NY: Guilford Publications.