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What Would Have Helped in Improving Team Dynamics
The biggest problem that the team encountered is that while we realized what we were supposed to accomplish, we failed to implement proper SMART goals (specific, measurable in certain units, achievable, results oriented and should account for time). We approached the activity thinking that we could do it as we pleased and did not determine how particular processes should be implemented, what times certain parts should be submitted and combined and what the results should be in each outcome. The result was a very confusing time, at least from my perspective, when it came to proper project implementation.

From my point of view, I believe we should have taken into account Vrooms Expectancy theory when it came to some members who were part of our group. While I do believe that all of us are here to learn and excel, there were some among us who were “less than enthusiastic” when it came to group work, and I believe that this was a contributing factor behind our decreased rate of performance. Vroom’s expectancy theory has the fundamental belief that people’s behavior is shaped by a conscious choice. In the case of managing performance within a group, this comes in the form of an approach that states that group members can be motivated to work harder and better for the group is if there is a sufficient positive correlation between the effort they put into the work done and reward they are given.

In our group’s case, the lack of adequate SMART goals and the lax attitude we had to the exercise in general likely contributed towards some members of the group developing the notion that the activity was not important and that they were likely not to get much out it. What we should have done from the start is indicate how important the group activity was, state how doing a good job of it would help boost our grades and how, as a whole, all of us were expected to contribute towards the group work. It is likely that if we had implemented this type of behavior from the start, we could have avoided rushing through the work and ending up with the result that we had.   [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

When looking at the outcome, I can honestly say that we could have done much better than what we made. Yes, the result may seem nice, but that was more the result of desperate last minute work than the outcome of several days of proper research and development. The development process was lackadaisical; the research was lacking in proper coherence, and we had no organizational structure to speak of when it came to arranging who did what and who was supposed to combine the works.

While I was doing my part of the exercise, I was somewhat confused since I did not know how my section would contribute to the work as a whole and this lack of understanding does show in parts of the final project outcome. You can see what it is, a “slap and paste” method at work where there is an improper implementation of finesse in the final result. The work did turn out “nicely” but it could have been much better and I am not satisfied with the results. We should have had someone focus on doing proper checks on what we were doing and organized things behind the scenes.

Unfortunately, we all did “our own thing” when it came to the project and merely rushed through combining it all together the day before the project was due. I suspect that some of my fellow teammates waited until the very last minute to start on their parts since we had to wait several hours before they submitted their sections. I have to admit that, individually, we are great at what we do since we have our own ways of doing things. However, when we are forced to work together as a group, our different methods just clash with one another, and the result was a mess that fortunately turned out alright.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The following are the main challenges our team faced:
a.) Lack of Proper Coordination
Simply put, we lacked proper leadership and from the start of the project all the way until the end. We knew what task we had to accomplish and we set out individually to get it done. On the surface this may seem like a good idea; however, without an overarching goal of what sort of arguments, methods, and information we were supposed to focus on, we ended up with information that sometimes contradicted what were attempting to say. Our arguments, points of view and conclusions lacked any form of cohesion, and this led to many arguments during the stage when we were supposed to combine all the work together.

Everyone thought that their perspective was the correct one and vehemently opposed altering or outright removing their contribution to the project. That is one of the reasons why, when you go over our work, you may see some instances where the arguments may seem a bit “strange” or that they lack proper coherence when it comes to previous statements that were given. We tried to do our best, but our lack of good leadership hindered a lot of the progress that we made.

b.) No Goals Were Set
Another of the problems we experienced during the project was a distinct lack of goal setting in the form of project milestones. We should have made a GATT chart when it came to how we approached the project and set up more group meetings to focus on what we should all be achieving with a particular span of time. The problem with our method was that there was no sense of urgency when it came to doing the project.

Even I have to say that I am guilty of putting off my section for a significant bit of time and I happen to think that I am a responsible individual when it comes to school work. Our relaxed policy of completing the project resulted in many of us barely completing the work a day before the submission, and this created a massive mess when it came to combining all the needed work. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

We should have set goals on when one part should be completed when that part should be connected with the work of other people and how it should be edited and arranged. Unfortunately, we did not do this and just wrote based on what we thought at the time as a relatively good process of just getting the work done and submitted.

c.) Insufficient Communication
The last problem we encountered was insufficient communication when it came to the project and our intended outcomes. This was reflected in the arguments we had that I mentioned earlier on that caused us a lot of headaches. At the start of the project we did talk about the different parts, but we did not create an overarching plan regarding what the project should focus on. We simply got each part and concentrated on that to the exclusion of all else.

While we were working on our parts, there was no communication going on between the different group members, no sharing of ideas, no back and forth discussions, and no emails containing information that one of us would find interesting or relevant. We all thought, at the time, that it was unnecessary and that communicating with one another would simply be too bothersome. Unfortunately, this proved to be our undoing when it was time to combine all our work. If we had communicated with each other and addressed problems before it was time to combine all our work, we could have done a much better job.

Overall, I have to reiterate what I said earlier that the project outcome could have been much better if we simply planned things out from the start and set goals. However, this is all based on hindsight and, as such, there is nothing I can do about what happened in the past. If there is one positive thing that I can take away from this exercise is that I now know what I should do when it comes to other group projects like this in the future.


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In the past decade, the number of students who study abroad has been increasing (Xiaolan, 2015). People from different nations are motivated by different factors that lead them into new nations in search for an education or to pursue a degree or majors that suits them. One of the nations that have seen an influx in the number of people that move abroad to study is China. Over the past few years, China has asserted its course to regain pole position as the number one nation in producing international students (Xinyang Xuan, 2016). International students from China study in different nations mainly in the Western Nations such as the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Belgium, and France (Wu, 2015). The aim of this essay is to assess what motivates Chinese students to study abroad in Canada. Such an assessment is important in understanding why there is such a huge influx of Chinese students in Canada.

In a recent survey conducted on the number of Chinese students in Canada, it was revealed that there was an increase of 26% in the 2015 academic year compared to the 2014 academic year. This indicated an increase to 87,000 students who study in Canada and are imports from China. Despite the fact that majority of the Chinese students in Canada are at the graduate level, the undergraduate level has also seen a huge influx in the past few years. The influx may be motivated by several reasons as discussed below. The first reason is the increase in number of fairs and exhibitions by Canadian universities in Hong Kong and Mainland China. These fairs and exhibitions are conducted by numerous universities that are located in Canada in a bid to increase the interest of Chinese students to study within the country.

These exhibitions are attended in Mainland China and Hong Kong by thousands of students who desire to study in Canada (Wang et al. 2015). These exhibitions not only delve into the academic qualifications and competencies that are imparted to students, but also on the advantages of studying in Canada and the tourism aspects of the country. These aspects often tend to motivate students to move abroad to pursue an education. Another aspect that motivates Chinese students to move abroad to Canada is the visa application process. In the past, it was very difficult for students to receive a Canadian study visa. This was in the form of bureaucracies and stringent bottlenecks that deterred students from studying in the country. As a result, many opted to study in the United States and across different regions in Europe.

Chen, C. P., & Hong, J. L. (2016). Career Development of Chinese Canadian Professional
Immigrants. Career Development Quarterly64(3), 272-286.

Wang, C., Li, X., Ou, X., O’Kane, J., Mao, Z., & Zhang, W. (2015). An Exploration of the
Readiness, Challenges and Expected Support for Their Overseas Study of Chinese Business and Management Programme Students. Higher Education Quarterly69(4),

Wu, Q. (2015). Re-examining the ‘Chinese learner’: a case study of mainland Chinese students’
learning experiences at British Universities. Higher Education70(4), 753-766.

Xiaolan, Y. (2015). Chinese College Students’ Risk Attitude to Moving
Abroad To Study. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal43(5), 795-802.
Xinyang Xuan, S. (2016). Why Do Chinese Students Study Abroad: An Empirical Study on
Brain Drain” in Developing States. Conference Papers — Southern Political Science Association, 1-26.

Zupan, N., Kaše, R., Raškovic, M., Kai, Y., & Chunyan, W. (2015). Getting ready for the young
generation to join the workforce: A comparative analysis of the work values of Chinese and Slovenian business students. Journal For East European Management Studies20(2),


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1.) Creativity
A lot of people who know me may not realize this, but I enjoy coming up with new concepts and ideas for fun. It can be as simple as a story idea for a movie or television show or something as complex as a new business. Whatever the idea may be, I derive a lot of joy and satisfaction simply from the process of creation. While a lot of my thoughts are pure nonsense and were made just to pass the time, some of them are stored on notepad accounts on my computer. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Whether it is a story or business idea, if I think the concept is good I write it down for later use. Some people may not consider this to be much of an accomplishment; I say that the literal hundreds of pages of content I have written down over the years says otherwise. Some of these concepts have made their way into the projects I make for school and the creative writing exercises I sometimes have to submit.

For me, the fact that people can read the fruits of my imagination and hopefully enjoy it is one of the greatest joys that I can imagine. While I cannot say that this signature strength has left a significant impact on my life, it has made it more interesting and worth living.

2.) Perseverance
Some people say that my one defining trait is that I am incredibly hard headed and stubborn, that once I set my mind to something I do not let go of that idea or concept that easily. I do admit that I can have a form of “tunnel vision” when it comes to pursuing a particular goal, but this is a positive trait since it shows that I do not give up easily. Whether it is an activity in school or something that occurs in my personal life, I pursue it wholeheartedly until either I accomplish it or I burn myself out. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

I have experienced situations where I have pursued a goal so much that I do not even realize how tired I am until my body gives out and I have no choice but to lie there. However, through this level of perseverance, I have been able to pass tests that people say I should have failed or accomplished tasks that people thought someone like me could not accomplish. This trait has become a defining aspect of who I am as a person since it shows that, no matter how difficult the challenge, I will pursue it regardless of the amount of effort needed.

3.) Curiosity
There is an old saying that says that “curiosity killed the cat,” I say that curiosity is the very spice of life itself. Curiosity has been the cornerstone of how I have lived my life and the basis behind many of my choices. I chose the course I am currently in due to curiosity; I opted to go to particular schools based on my curiosity, and it is likely that my future career choices will also be due to my curiosity.

Throughout my life, my goals and aspirations have been due to my insatiable need to learn more, experience new things and delve into events that I would never have encountered if I had chosen the “safe” path. Through this mindset, I have been able to enter into competitions and events that people would say I had no chance of winning, but I did. I have seen more than a simple computer screen and delved into the very essence of what it is like to truly live. For me, the impact of this trait on my life is immeasurable; it would be the same as trying to place value on breathing.

4.) Gratitude
I believe that people, all too often, fail to express proper appreciation for what they have been given. I have seen people lament about not getting the latest iPhone when there are others who are starving. There are those who complain about the amount of school work they have despite the fact there are millions who will never have the same type of education. It is due to what I have seen that I express gratitude each and every single day by doing what I can to live the life that others would desperately want to have. I read as much as I can, appreciate everything that I eat and own and do my best to ensure that my life is one that is not squandered. This attitude has impacted my life through my belief that nothing should be wasted and that every opportunity should be pursued.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

5.) Self-regulation
We all need to control ourselves, whether it is our desires, actions, behaviors or beliefs. In one form or another, we need to exercise self-control since, without it, we can wind up in situations that could lead to our undoing. Self-regulation for me takes the form of controlling how much I eat, how much fun I have in a day and the amount of work that I do. Whether it is work or play, everything should be in moderation. Through this attitude, I have been able to create proficient study habits and establish an appropriate method of time management for all my activities. The impact of this signature strength on my life has been immense since it has enabled me to accomplish a lot of different activities and goals within a short amount of time.


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The role of all governments is to ensure citizens enjoy proper social services, in addition to peace. While many states tend to accomplish in delivering this, it does come at a price. The United States has one of the best governments and that means that such high levels of success in social services have come at a great cost to both the government and the citizens. The United States National Debt is $19,795,497,461,281.62 (Chantrill, 2016). This makes it very high as compared to other countries. This means that the U.S. must fix its national debt problem, or the citizens will continue to face a slow growth economy.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Based on the national debt, it could be true to state that the Federal debt per person is $60,667, and that makes it very high (Chantrill, 2016). This means that all people are required to pay this debt. Such payments are made through ways such as taxation. The fact that the government is spending more than it collects through revenue will continue to increase the national debt. The increased national debt will mean that people get to access social services at a higher cost than before. Some of the effects of this high national debt include higher living costs, generational inequality, slower wage growth, fiscal crises, and reduced fiscal flexibility (Fix the Debt, 2016). [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The effect of the high national debt on the economy is shown when the government is forced to seek loans from the citizens through the sale of bonds. Such bonds are sold to people with the promise that it would give the money back with interest (Fix the Debt, 2016).[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]When the government spends on such expenses, that means there is little or no investments being made towards the economy. Even the raised amounts through the sale of bonds only mean that people will get to pay a larger debt in the long term.

Chantrill, C. (2016, October 29). Federal Debt Clock. Retrieved from US Government Debt



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Literature Review      
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) (2014) notes that about 25% of Americans aged 60 years and above have diabetes. The report singles out aging as the salient driver of the epidemic. In a study by Espeland (2007), 5145 individuals aged between 45 and 74 with type II diabetes were randomized. It was found that 54.4% of the people visited clinics eligibly. Due to the age differences, 13.5% were not eligible, 8.6% did not have diabetes, and those with type I diabetes turned out to be 4.4%. Individuals who were not eligible due to staff judgment were 7.6%, those with increased blood pressure were 7% and those with incomplete behavioral run-ins stood at 4.8%. In the first year of intervention, participants had an average weight loss of 8.6% and a 21% improvement in cardiovascular fitness. Some of the participants who were on insulin eventually lost 7.6% of the initial weight, while those who hardly lost weight used a weight loss medicine (orlistat) after the sixth month of intensive exercise and calorie intake deduction.

The Look AHEAD trials concluded that the differences in the ILI and DSE groups regarding the change in the risking factors in the initial year stems from the cardiovascular benefits of the ILI. However, they pointed out that it could require more years to ascertain the possibility of maintaining the weight loss. Additionally, the study did not give a definitive analysis as to whether the weight loss could result in long-term effects concerning the risking factors. Furthermore, the authors did not clearly establish whether the favorable risking factors changes may reflect a reduction in the cardiovascular events.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

In exploring the analysis done by Jeon et al. (2007), random effect models were used to measure the effective size of type II diabetes. Ten studies comprising of 301,221participants and 9,367 cases were conducted.  Five of those studies focused on walking as an activity that reduced type II diabetes risks. It was established that the summary relative risks were 0.69 for those who moderately participated in physical activity. On the other hand, the relative risks for the BMI-unadjusted compared to the highest and lowest walking level was 0.7. The research indicates that even with BMI changes, the association remained an important factor in participants of both genders. In a study of 10 cohort studies, the authors observed a significant inverse association in the physical activity, moderate intensity and the risks of T2DM. They pointed out that it was 30% less risky to T2DM as compared to other sedentary peers. Regular walking showed similar results. However, even after changing the MBI, the diabetes risks did not seem reduced; it remained at 17%. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

It is more likely the limiting factors that contributed to the negative results as was anticipated in the MBI stem from designs of the data used in the study. Their meta-analysis data was more observational-based as opposed to empirical ones. Thus, it is most likely that the summary estimates were substantially affected by confounding and other biases that could have found their ways to the analysis.

In 2013, Reiner et al. conducted a review summary of the existing studies with the aim of delineating the relationship between physical activity and weight gain, T2DM, dementia, Alzheimer diseases and coronary heart disease. The authors based their research on the hypotheses that treatment of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) causes escalated costs to the health facilities, hence the need to address them through physical activity programs. In their understanding, this is supposed to reduce the associated risks of these diseases. The method they applied involved fifteen longitudinal surveys with not less than 5-year follow-up periods with total participants of 288,724 with each study containing not less than 500 of them. The age of the participants was an important factor in this research and thus they chose individuals ranging from 28 to 85 years with the help of a digital database. These comprised of English-based studies regarding the healthy adults, NCDs, and international physical study.  The analysis findings indicated that physical activities had a positive, long-lasting influence on all the disease selected in this study. As a result of the review, the authors found a paucity of long-term surveys concerning the relationship between NCD instances and the physical activity. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Just like Jin et al. (2007), this review study did not involve empirical research. Their meta-analysis data was more observational based as opposed to empirical-based. Thus, it is most likely that the summary reports were substantially affected by other confounding biases that could have found their ways to the analysis. For instance, the study did not involve subsamples representing the normal communities or unhealthy participants alone in their quest to longitudinal improvements of the NCDs as a result of the physical activity. There was no control samples in the review studies used. The study primarily sought to find out whether the method used was worth to be applied in other future studies. It is only after comparisons that it was easier to point out the significance of various conditions in the intended results. The current research did not have a control sample in place making the validation of their findings to face practical challenges.

In another study, Hotta et al. (2000) related the adipose-specific protein available in the circulation system as being a salient factor of type II diabetes dependant on the ambient conditions. The protein has the anti-atherogenic properties. The study involved a total of 183 participants who had diabetes type II including 127 men and 56 women. They drew blood samples after an overnight fast and two hours before and after an ingestion of 75 grams of plasma glucose.  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The authors analyzed the concentration of plasma adiponectin levels in age and BMI matched type II diabetic, and non-diabetic participants recorded to have or not have the coronary artery disease (CAD). The adiponectin plasma levels in CAD patients showed lower results as compared to the non-diabetic individuals. They also found the concentrations of plasma adiponectin diabetic patients who equally happened to have lower CAD as compared to that of diabetic patients. However, the leptin levels did not show a significant difference between the two categories of patients. They concluded that weight reduction elevated plasma adiponectin concentration to large margins in both groups. They found that the decrease in plasma adiponectin is an indicator of macroangiopathy. Consequently, the attempts in reducing body weight as a way of normalizing plasma adiponectin could be sufficient to curb atherosclerosis. The study involved control experiments and empirical analysis of the data obtained. Thus, its findings can be implemented to prevent weight gain issues that cause type II diabetes.

American Diabetes Association. (2014). Older Adults.

Bherer, L., Erickson, K. I., & Liu-Ambrose, T. (2013). A review of the effects of physical activity and exercise on cognitive and brain functions in older adults. Journal of aging research.

Espeland, M. (2007). Reduction in weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors in individuals with type II diabetes: one-year results of the look AHEAD trial. Diabetes care.

Hotta, K., Funahashi, T., Arita, Y., Takahashi, M., Matsuda, M., Okamoto, Y., … & Nishida, M. (2000). Plasma concentrations of a novel, adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in type II diabetic patients. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology, 20(6), 1595-1599.

Jeon, C. Y., Lokken, R. P., Hu, F. B., & Van Dam, R. M. (2007). Physical activity of moderate intensity and risk of type II diabetes a systematic review. Diabetes care, 30(3), 744-752.

Reiner, M., Niermann, C., Jekauc, D., & Woll, A. (2013). Long-term health benefits of physical activity–a systematic review of longitudinal studies. BMC public health, 13(1), 1.


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Toshiba history and background
Toshiba traces its origin back to 1875 in Japan when it started as a simple Information Communication Technology Company. However, the company, as we know it today, was incorporated in the year 1938 when it became a merger of two existing companies. It was named Toshiba in 1978 after several affiliates merged to form one big company in the year 1977. The name Toshiba is a nickname and an abbreviation of Tokyo Shibaura Electric. The company, since then, has grown to be a great and respectable brand among the Japanese known electronic products. It has also received major global recognition due to its quality products, and ideal services it offers (Ando & Gallagher, 2015). Toshiba Company has been the cream of all electronic companies in the region and their products are widely regarded in the world market.

In its organization, Toshiba is organized into four business sections. These sections are:

  1. Digital Products Group
  2. Electronic Devices Group
  3. Home Appliances Group
  4. Social Infrastructure Group

These four sub sections work in tandem to promote the company’s brand and to ensure that international customers get a variety of these products. These brands have been in existence for quite some time, and this has made it possible for the consumers to be satisfied and comfortable.  Having started as an engineering company, it has vast and broad experience in provision of ideal and quality services and products (Ando & Gallagher, 2015). [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

By 1977, Toshiba had acquired and bought several other companies, making it one of the strongest companies in the world able to compete with other companies in the same industry such as Samsung, LG and Sony. The company has been strong and has stood up well despite the small challenges it experienced until the major scandal that hit it in the year 2015 (Shimura et al, 2016).

Toshiba is responsible for the existence of some impeccable products such as radar (1912), the first color video game, transistor television and many types of laptops. This has seen the company grow to be one of the best electronic companies in the Asian market. As of January 2012, the company had almost 250,000 employees worldwide. They also have managed to have branches in over 100 countries which help them in marketing and actual selling of their world-adored products.

2015 Accounting Scandal
Since its inception in 1938, Toshiba has never experienced a major fraud case or any other major misdemeanor that would greatly affect its reputation. However, in 2015, the company announced that it was investigating an accounting scandal that lost close to $1.1 billion from the company. It was reported that Toshiba wanted to mark down the profits that it has made in the past three years. This consequentially led to the resignation of its CEO Hisao Tanaka in July 2015. In his resignation speech, Tanaka termed the fraud as the most damaging in the company’s140 year-old history. This also led to the resignation of its other 8 officials (Ando & Gallagher, 2015). The consequences of this fraud were first experienced in September 2015 when the sales received a major drawback in more than five years. The sales fell by more than $8billion compared to such a time in the previous year. However, in May 2016, the company announced its return to normality with Satoshi Tsunakawa as its new CEO (Mochizuki et al, 2016).[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Background of the Scandal
This scandal was followed by a string of losses in the following months due to the impact of the information. According to researchers in Japan, the problem stemmed from the company’s employee who understood the cost of the long term projects. This was followed by the company overstating operation profits by $1.2 since 2008-2014. This was something that showed that the senior management was not aware of the fraud and how it happened.

Secondly, the blame of the fraud would partially go to the two former CEOs.  It is said, according to reports, Toshiba CEOs immense pressure on subordinates to meet the company’s targets, and also meet the 2008 global recession. According to the reports, this intense pressure made employees to forgo the losses and forward the sales reports to meet the recession target. It seems, this mistake which was done cumulatively made the problem worse than it would have been at first (Hong & Snell, 2015).[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Another problem associated with this fraud within Toshiba Company is the differences between the senior officials of the company.  For instance, Mr. Nishida who was the head of Toshiba computer division, and Mr. Sasaki from the Toshiba power business were rivals and they literally disliked one another (Hong & Snell, 2015). However, they both resigned after the fraud and it is said that they could have. Differences between leaders can cause problems to the company as loopholes can be created in between.

Toshiba 2015 scandal again has been associated with lack of proper corporate governance in Japan. However, Japanese Prime Minister then Shinzo Abe laid up measures that were meant to revive the Japanese economy which had started to shrink affecting major companies such as Toshiba. This problem having affected Hitachi, it also touched a part of the Toshiba Company (Hong & Snell, 2015).

At first, the problem did not seem major when first it was announced in 2015. Having overstated the profit in 2014 fiscal year, the company was expected to run smoothly until they announced that they were experiencing accounting problems. The abrupt changes in the management and prompt resignation from senior management team showed that there was a ready step to be taken to save the company from falling (Hong & Snell, 2015).  The company withdrew dividends that it would have shared during that time. The company who has more than 400000 shareholders was worried of losing some of the shareholders in the company.

By the end of this year, the company may show some signs of revival, but it is not until they change their way of profit analysis. Since the announcement of the fraud, in 2015, its home –appliances and electronics has not made any profit due to the impact of the information. Since the announcement, some rival companies such as Hitachi have taken advantage of the market to shun off Toshiba’s products. Another affected part is that of the shares. Toshiba shares dropped drastically since April, 2015 although these share has been gaining momentum sequentially (Hong & Snell, 2015). [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Today Toshiba has recorded a great improvement compared to such a time last year. The reason as to why this improvement has been noted is by the fact that management has changed from the way it was during the 2014 fiscal year. Secondly, tight measures have been taken to ensure that the company has been able to rise again to where it used to be. To please their customers and shareholders once again, the company has been able to give quality products; a step that is intended to win the consumer’s trust once again (Shimura et al, 2016).

Ando, R., Gallagher C. (2015). Toshiba Cancel Dividend, Pulls Outlook in Accounting
Scandal. Reuters. 

Hong, J. F., & Snell, R. S. (2015). Knowledge development through co-opetition: A case study of a Japanese foreign subsidiary and its local suppliers. Journal of World  Business50(4), 769-780.

Michizuki, T., Fukase, A. (2016) Toshiba announces new Chief Executive After accounting
Scandal. Wall Street Journal. 

Shimura, N., Yagisawa, T., & Makabe, T. (2016). Effect of a momentum-transfer scattering  at inelastic collisions on the electron transport II: Case study in Ar. Bulletin of the  American Physical Society.


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Change is inevitable in a business organization due to the dynamic nature of the environment in which the business operates. In such a scenario, the organization is bound to take in new initiatives as well as depart from the old ineffective practices. Whereas many managers agree to the need for a change, differences always emerge on how the intended change should take place. It is the duty of the management to plan on all contingencies that may arise within an organization. On the other hand, disasters or risks are inevitable and create a learning opportunity as well as means of implementing change. Following the Challenger tragedy of 1986, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) embarked on implementing organization changes that would prevent future disasters in such a key organization. However, the Columbia Shuttle disaster of 2003 brought to the realization of organization failure and the difficult nature of sustaining change. This essay explores the Challenger and the Columbia Shuttle disasters with emphasis on images of managing change, types of change, challenge to change, resistance to change, communicating a vision, and sustaining change.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Organization Failures in Challenger and Columbia Shuttle disasters
One of the common problems uncovered in both disasters was the destruction of the solid rocket boosters (SRBs) during the lift off. In the case of the challenger, low level engineers had been involved in a debate with senior management at Morton Thiokol, a firm contracted by NASA for the SRBs. This disaster also uncovered breakdown in communication among the engineers, the contractors and NASA (Hall, 2003). Additionally, the pressure exerted by Reagan administration at the time led to normalization of deviance by referring to previous missions that had experienced O-rings damages but were still successful. In a similar manner, the Columbia tragedy which disintegrated over Texas during its re-entry uncovered the organization failure in instituting changes recommended by the Challenger disaster commission. In this disaster, the organization failed to act on the earlier noted deviances in launching and safety procedures. Breakdown in communication between senior management and low level engineers was also evident.

Whenever faced with a problem the management and personnel require a reference point that can help in solving such problems in a creative manner.  As noted by Fayol, the management is tasked with six main functions that include managerial, planning, coordinating, organizing, commanding, and controlling (Burnes, 2009). These approaches to managing change were evident within NASA following the recommendations of the Challenger disaster report. For example, the NASA had made significant organizational changes as well as revised its shuttle manifest so as to reflect a realistic flight rate. Additionally, the organization set up a new office for safety, reliability and quality assurance. These changes were attributed to vital space shuttle successes for a period of 17 years between the two disasters (Hall, 2003). However, besides these successes, the hierarchy at NASA remained intact.

NASA management failed in shaping the organization to realize these goals by being more participative as well as improving the capabilities of the people. This is notable by the organizations reduction of the workforce in the 1990’s in the bid to lower the operating costs (Hall, 2003). This contributed to widening of skills imbalance and overburdening of the current workforce. The safety, reliability and quality assurance department was mostly affected due to the limited budget that ensured normalization of deviance. For example, more space shuttle operations were executed even when questions to the damage caused by the foam material applied on the tanks were raised.  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Breakdown in communication within NASA has been noted as a serious problem that affects implementation of the intended change. For example, prior to the launch of the Challenger, the low level engineers had requested for the postponement of the launch citing damages to the O-rings. However, due to lack of time in providing evidence to these observations, they ended up using reports obtained from previous shuttle missions. This led to rebuke from the senior management and coercion into approving the launching of the Challenger. In a similar manner, the senior management at NASA which is one of the images of change could have had control of the outcomes by approving the use of satellite imaging in analyzing the damage made on the Columbia Shuttle.

The sense-making theory of organizational change notes that managers have the ability to create meaning to an organization by helping the members make sense of the various actions and events (Paton & McCalman, 2008). In this case the engineers should have created an awareness of the risk posed by the damage on the Columbia shuttle left wing. The managers also have a duty of increasing awareness of the different change interpretations. Of much importance is the ability of the dominant images of change such the NASA top hierarchy excessive power.

Types of Change Required at NASA
Kotter posits that an organization should utilize its basic structures and tools in controlling the change efforts (Cameron & Green, 2012). One of the changes required at NASA involve business process re-engineering. This will involve rethinking of how work is done from the ground up. According to Morgan (2003), re-engineering lays emphasis on a holistic focus on the set objectives, processes, and encouraging a full scale recreation of processes. For example, NASA should come up with new measures of insulating the tanks and avoid foams that have contributed to shattering of the shuttles. Additionally, a technological change in required through innovation and diffusion of new technological processes.

Resistance to Change
Hierarchical and bureaucratic nature of top and middle management contributes to the greatest resistance in implementation of change within NASA. NASA has a top-view management structure that is rigid and which has created a widening gap in information sharing. This management is also embedded on evidence based approach which may not be inappropriate in scenarios requiring quick interventions. Additionally, contracting for critical processes reduces collaboration that may be essential in evaluating the risks. Politics also increase resistance to change within this organization as congress and upper management are unwilling to make decisions that would jeopardize gains realized from exploration.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Implementing Change
The first step in implementing change within NASA involves creating urgency around the need for change. Discussions on threats posed by the hierarchical and bureaucratic management as well opportunities that the organization stands to gain are likely to motivate people to demand change. The second step involves building a team to spearhead the intended change. This should involve all managers at all levels within the organization.
NASA vision entails flying what others only imagine. This vision should be communicated more often across the organization so as to move the people in the same direction. Obstacles to the implementation of such changes should also be removed. A significant change is the elimination of the hierarchical form of leadership to an organic structure which facilitates dynamic flexibility and collaborative linkages.

Figure A. The Change Management Process

Finally, there is a need to integrate the change into the organizations culture that is strongly entrenched into path dependence and normalization of deviance. NASA is often compounded by secrecy and bureaucracies that continue to impede implementation of changes. All stakeholders should be brought on board in decision making and evaluation of the processes being implemented. This will help in modifying the intended changes as well as overcoming changes that are beyond the control of the managers.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

This paper sought to analyze the Challenger and the Columbia Shuttle disasters with emphasis on images of managing change, types of change, challenge to change, resistance to change, communicating a vision, and sustaining change. These disasters are highly attributed to organization failure especially in implementing and sustaining change. Through incremental and business re-engineering the organization can be able to regain its glory in exploration. More importantly, elimination of the resistance to change in its hierarchical structure and political interference will help in sustaining change.

Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2012). Making sense of change management: A complete guide to      the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. London: Kogan Page.

Burnes, B. (2009). Managing change. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Hall, J. (2003). Columbia and Challenger: organizational failure at NASA. Space Policy,  19:       239–247.

Morgan, G. (2003). Images of organization. San Francisco [u.a.: Berrett-Koehler [u.a..

Paton, R. A., & McCalman, J. (2008). Change Management: A Guide to EffectiveImplementation. London: Sage Publications.


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The police department comprises one of the most celebrated features of a democratic government. The police are tasked with the duty of protecting the citizens and promoting peaceful co-existence in the society. Consequently, the police units serve as an extension of the government priorities and policies. In addition, they are empowered and equipped to enforce the law in instances and environment of unruliness. The police act as social control agents to manage the sustenance of the society and are therefore subjects to the concept of accountability.

Recent times have seen a rise in police brutality and violence in America (Human Rights Watch, 1998). More than any other American community, The Black community has borne the brunt of increased police brutality. Increased police brutality on the Black members of the community has inspired several protests and activist vilification. To curtail the prevalence of police violence in the society, the need for the policing of the police cannot be overstated. There is a need to determine the laws that govern the manner in which the police engage people. In addition to violent acts, the police institution has been in the spotlight for all the wrong reasons as revealed in the media houses. The Police engage in excessive corruption and abominable criminal acts without any thought for the effects that such actions might have on the entire police department. This is intended to preempt the loss of public trust in the police.

The use of force by the police to curtail crime in society has resulted in several divergent issues. Such theoretical positions allude to the need for police violence to maintain peace and sanity in the society. This theoretical framework is a reinforcement of the police roles in light of the recent wanton and unregulated shooting of Black people in the American society (Cobb, 2016). Also, such assertions do not succinctly address the level of brutality that should be engaged by the police in enforcing the laws.

Essentially, it is unclear on the degree to which the police should apply violence. It becomes significant to consider why it is common for the Black community to make the largest percentage of victims to police brutality. In addition, are there any policies that can be employed to guide the police to curtail police violence? In addition, what steps should be engaged in punishing police officers who are found to be guilty of wanton violence? All these questions reflect on the nature of police brutality, factors that increase of the phenomenon in recent times and the ways through which such trends can be mitigated.

Sociological theorems provide frameworks that could be used to assess the proliferation of police violence in the society. Theory-based assessments of police violence and brutality in America are still at the infant stages. It was not until recently that researchers applied these frameworks to explain police conduct in the society. This paper analyzes four sociological theorems and employs these principles to explain police behavior in the 21stcentury. It further assesses the challenges that are faced in the regulation of the police force. These theorems include The Sociological principles employed include the conflict theory, the Utilitarian tradition, the Micro-interactionist theory and the Durkheimian tradition. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The Socio-conflict Theory on Police Brutality
The socio-conflict theory supports the need for differences and antagonism in the society (Collins, 1994). The principle states that the rich and the dominant race will always try to exert their authority in the governance of a State. The powerful persons in the society prevail on the State institution and processes. In America, the most powerful individuals in governance and the general population comprise individuals from the White Race. The superior individuals tend to reinforce their authority over the powerless in the society. The conflict theory prevails that these differences will always result in conflict given that the powerless will always strive to change their powerless status through resistance.

Based on the conflicting principle, government institutions are purported to be the results of political processes that are intended to protect the interests of powerful individuals in the society. The essence of the police, based on these analysis metrics, is to boost inequality and ease the exploitation of the powerless by the powerful in the society (Cobb, 2016). Increased police brutality in the 21st century is a culmination of the racial and economic differences projected by the American population. This shows why the police play the role of fueling the racial conflict between the Whites and the Blacks in America.

The African Americans constitute a minority group in America and rate as one of the poorest communities. The economic disparity between members of the White race and the Black race is a very wide gap. However, because of civil rights movements in the 1960s, the Black community has been acknowledged and their freedoms recognized. This situation has equally played a role in boosting their conflict with some people within the White American population. Therefore, the police department is used as a tool by which the majority and economically superior White race can impose their authority over all the other races in America (ThyBlackMan, 2015). This explains the trends in police violence where the police are more aggressive with the minorities as compared to the majorities within the American nation.

The issue of policing the police department also makes another challenge. This challenge is based on the racial and power differences in the American society. It would be important to note that the administrative actions of the police are influenced by the same police departments that seek to be managed (Human Rights Watch, 1998). These administrative functions influence the choices that police officers are expected to make. Therefore, increased police violence does not stem from the individual choices but more from the administrative processes. Therefore, this makes it harder to regulate police actions. The administrative bodies of the police are aligned towards the promotion of the interests of the rich individuals in the society. Therefore, this would explain why the established laws promote the interests of the superior races. The Black community comprises a subordinate political race. They lack majority political power that would have been useful in influencing the choices of individual police officers. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Police brutality against the minorities may be viewed as the inevitable culmination of powerlessness of the minority group (Collins, 1994). This assertion plays a significant role in promoting the police brutality in society. Likewise, this metric is often engaged in overlooking the need to assess police violence. Many cases of police brutality are left uninvestigated. This could be attributed to the flippancy with which the overall administrative body extends to such cases. The flippancy is a culmination of police indoctrination by the police administrators.

According to the socio-conflict theory, the common assumption that the minority groups make up for the largest number of transgressors is false. The excessive application of police brutality to the minority groups is associated with the constant attention extended to the minority groups by the police (ThyBlackMan, 2015). Given that members of the minority group are underrepresented in the justice system, the police officers usually find it easier to focus on such groups. Therefore, it becomes more likely that the police officers can easily infer more criminal activities on the minority groups than to the majority groups. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Likewise, the police tend to impose more force in areas that comprise individuals from the minority race (Cobb, 2016). It is highly unlikely, given the unconscious indoctrination, that they would exert force on individuals from the powerful group in the society. Should they do that, they would stand to suffer unknown repercussions as opposed to dealing with the minorities. Nonetheless, it is also necessary to acknowledge that the powerless people lack faith in the police departments and rarely report the instances of police brutality. In comparison to the powerful group in the society, the weak in the society tend to report instances of violence than is the case with the majority race in the community. It would be important to consider that this is due to the tendency of the police to keep away from the powerful and elite persons in society.

The Utilitarian Tradition in Police Violence

The utilitarian tradition is based on the need for engagement of actions and decisions that promote a greater good (McCartney, 2015). The Utilitarian Tradition is a sociological perspective that encourages individuals to act in a manner that promotes the well-being for the largest number of individuals. Essentially, the majorities influence the decision-making in any given community. The interests of the majority prevail over the interests of the minority. The Utilitarian framework enables the sacrificing of the actions that have lesser impacts. Therefore, instead of assessing the action in itself, an individual should determine the outcome of the action and base the decisions based on such a framework.

The Utilitarian Tradition framework could be employed to examine police violence in the society (Collins, 1994). Police violence is a culmination of the need to protect the overall society against criminal activities. Increased police violence is a result of the need to promote the wellbeing of the other individuals. It acts as a deterrence to criminal activities in the affected communities. When a few individuals in the society are subject to violence based on criminal activities, then the other persons from the subject community are unlikely to engage in similar activities in the future. Therefore, the action in itself is wrong but suffices the need to preempt criminality in the society.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Police violence on the minority criminal community provides a necessary intervention given that the majority of the society is guaranteed peace. The majority of the individuals in the society are always against criminal activities, and it is for this reason that the police departments were created. The police departments are inclined towards ensuring that criminal activities are mitigated in the society (McCartney, 2015). The primary role of the police is to prevent all criminal activities. This may require the need to sacrifice a few individuals to protect the society. This would explain why police brutality is widely associated with the minority communities.

The criminals are also aligned towards extending violence on the police. This can be associated with the criminal tendency of gun persons being arrested by the police to attempt the use of their weapons. The police officers are legally empowered to arrest the criminals (McCartney, 2015). In addition, the life of a police officer is considered more valuable than that of a criminal, and that is likely to promote police brutality in the process of arresting criminals. Most officers would argue that they engaged in brutality because they thought their lives were in danger.

If criminal activities were left to thrive in the society, most government initiatives would have been impeded. Given the fact that the minorities in society are more likely to engage in crime, it becomes necessary for the police department to play their role and prevent criminal activities. The majorities in society are less likely to promote criminal activities, and that means the police are required to promote the greater good. Therefore, police violence is intended to promote the greater good, which is associated with the property and lives of the majority in society. Police violence is also often considered a small cost in the war against crime in the larger society (Cobb, 2016). Therefore, cases of police brutality tend to be shelved as necessary occurrences in the larger war against crime. This would explain why many cases of police brutality have gone uninvestigated. The fact that many police officers have engaged in acts of brutality and got away has promoted the same culture by other officers. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The hatred towards police brutality investigations is further a result of the need to protect the image of the police departments the eye of the public. The public recognizes the police institution as a law-abiding institution that further reinforces lawfulness in the society. Should there be constant investigations into police brutality, then the validity of the police department would be jeopardized. The special “bill of rights” for the police officer was created to ensure that such a culmination would be manifested (Human Rights Watch, 1998). It was intended to ensure that cases of misconduct involving the police officers would be solved in a secretive manner.

In addition, the police unions often negotiate deals on behalf of their clients, and that makes it difficult for the senior police officers enforce accountability to the individual police officers. All these measures are intended to protect the image of the police institution in the eyes of the public. This is the biggest priority and means that the police have an opportunity to get away with their acts of violence (Cobb, 2016). The police bosses’ efforts for accountability are curtailed when the union’s issue demands their members and that gives way for the termination of investigations in the police brutality cases.

The Durkheimian Tradition in Police Violence
The Durkheimian tradition promotes the concept of social forces in determining the functionalities engaged in the subject community (Collins, 1994). This assertion states the duties of the social structures of the society is to encourage social stability in the society. Emile Durkheim aligned himself to the functionalistic view of the society. Therefore, social institutions such as the police department were intended to ensure the protection and reinforcement of peace in the society. The tradition further alludes to the immensity of social forces in the society. Social forces encourage a consistent sense of confusion and disintegration. This confusion affects the minority more than it does the majority and powerful in the society. Such social forces determine the racial disparities in the victims of police brutality. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

In America, police violence is often found in the communities comprised of minority individuals. Based on the Durkheimian tradition, this happens because the overall society is more willing to overlook the issues that affect the minority (Cotterrell, 1991). This explains the media loathe towards examining cases involving police brutality on the minority in the US. The media in extending information appertaining to an act of police violence tend to amplify the breach of social codes rather than the act of the police officer. In assessing cases of police brutality, the media significantly amplifies the criminal act vis-à-vis the subsequent acts of the police, which influences public interest towards the criminal act and not the police response.

Public scrutiny is further inhibited by the social functionalism. The society is inclined towards the determination of the code of conduct that was breached rather than the overall responses of the police officers in the event of a criminal act. The society has established social norms that are imposed on the individuals within a given setting (Cotterrell, 1991). In the event of a functional breach, even the society is willing to overlook the misdemeanors of the police efforts in meting out justice and instead concentrate on the social breach overseen by the recipient of police brutality. This explains the reasons why the public has been disinterested in the police brutalism phenomenon up to recent times. Disinterest from the public curtails the pressure that the police officers have in the solving of cases that involve police brutality.

Most of the reported cases of police brutality originate from the minority communities. This is a culmination of the ritualistic doctrine prevailing in the subject communities. Individuals within a given community tend to converge around a pre-established identity. The minority are aware of the disadvantaged positions they occupy in the society and commonly associate themselves with the victim mentality concerning police brutality. The individuals in the minority communities are more inclined towards supporting each other rather than determining the cause of the violence in the first place. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The Durkheimian tradition reinforces the significance of rituals in a given community (Cotterrell, 1991). Rituals provide a sense of identity to the individuals in the society. Given that over the years, the minority groups have been at the forefront in the vilification of police brutality, individuals in the minority communities are more willing than not to claim similar complaints even if the police action does not comprise an act of brutality. The need for convergence and solidarity in the society results in curtailed and doctored views of police functions in the society and hence the rise in reported cases of police violence.

The Micro-interactionist Tradition in Police violence
The Micro-interactionist tradition states that the societal units are defined through social interactions (Collins, 1994). Essentially, the roles of the different groups in the society are reinforced over time through constant interactions. The role of the police institution in the society is to protect the community. They are the enforcers of the law and have the power to engage any means to achieve these goals. Therefore, the rise of police violence in recent times is a culmination of the need for increased regulation of criminal activities in the society. Police violence has essentially been influenced by the dynamics of criminal activities. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Increased police brutality is a reflection of the increased nature of the violence in criminal activities. Unlike in the past, criminals are now more willing to engage in gun violence. Therefore, to reinforce the law, the police are compelled to engage similar responses that culminate in increased police violence. This means that police brutality is a result of interactions with criminal brutality. It is a culmination of the need to ensure lawfulness in the community irrespective of the stances taken by the criminal actors. Furthermore, the middle class and the elite in the society fail to reinforce fairness and justice in the society. Friendliness is not reinforced in such cultures (ThyBlackMan, 2015). The responses initiated to address prevailing situations are aligned towards practicability. Given that the majority comprise the heads of many of the police departments, it is this doctrine that is transmitted to the members of the police officers. Therefore, instead of reinforcing friendliness with the public, the police are always aligned towards the extension of the appropriate response in recognition of the weight of the prevailing problem.


Police violence has seen a rise in recent times. The phenomenon affects minority groups than any other groups in America. Consequently, the Black community has been the subject of increased cases of police brutality. There are four sociological frameworks that can be employed to determine the administrative and functions of the police, which lead to increased police violence. The addressed sociological frameworks include the conflict tradition, the utilitarianism theory, the Durkheimian tradition, and the Micro-interactionist tradition. To mitigate police violence, there is a need to address all the social factors that inspire the communal disparities. For instance, I feel that there should be more community sessions between the police and members of the affected minority communities. This will ease the tension that is inspired by increased police violence. There is further need to address the shortage of minority representatives in the justice system. This will serve to preempt feeling of bitterness in the minority communities in their interactions with the majority community.

Cobb, J. (Director). (2016). Policing the police [Motion Picture].

Collins, R. (1994). Four sociological traditions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cotterrell, R. (1991). Review: The Durkheimian Tradition in the Sociology of the Law. Law & Society Review, 24(5), 923-946.

McCartney, S. (2015). Ethics in law enforcement. British Columbia: BC Campus.

Human Rights Watch. (1998). Shielded from justice: Police Brutality and Accountability in the United States. New York: Human Rights Watch.

ThyBlackMan. (2015, September 27). The rise of police brutality preserves a functionalist american society.


Sample by My Essay Writer

After completing my high school, I worked for GreenAcre, one of the local greengrocers in the area. The experience of change in the firm is my first-hand experience of what real change means. Although the company is small, it demonstrated how effective change could enhance the competitive advantage of a business. Back in 2006, GreenAcre was a struggling grocery store. Supermarkets and other major retailers were squeezing the company from the market as they introduced vegetables and fruits to their portfolio. When joining the company in 2007, the primary concern for the owners of the company was efficiency. The employees who were responsible for delivering goods did not provide them on time while those who were responsible for sales did not attend to the customers. The company’s stores were a mess. In 2007 alone, sales had fallen by more than 30% with revenues dipping to an all-time high. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The manager of the stores was a frustrated man. When I was being interviewed for the job, he kept lamenting how the current employees had failed to live up to their promises. By 2008, the owner of the business saw that the business model was not sustainable and sought to sell the company. The first order of the new company was to assess the reasons for the dismal performance of the company through an internal audit. The company sent a secret auditor to learn how each employee performed their jobs. After a three-week period, we were called to the office by the new management. The report cited lack of efficiency, poor customer relations, reduced response time, as well as negative attitudes of the employees towards customer as the primary reasons for the downturn of the company. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

After, examining the audit report, the first order of business for the new management was to lay off workers who were redundant and those whose performance was dismal. Before the layoff, the company explained the reasons for letting them go. The second step was to develop a training program for all employees on proper customer relations. As Blattberg, Kim and Neslin, (2008) observe, some of the proper customer relations skills include communication skills, monitoring and handling customer complaints, maintaining customer contacts even after sales, as well as building trust. The third step was to develop and implement information technology in the store operations to allow for centralized monitoring of sales and inventory. An app was later designed and included into the system to allow customers to order products from home. Within three months, the sales had rebounded. The sales people were more responsive and delivered goods to their customers on time. The centralized system was tracking deliveries to and from the company with ease. Loss of merchandise, an issue that had plagued the previous management, was no more.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

I believe that much of the success of the change in the company was a result of how the management approached the employees before implementing the changes. Communication between the new management and the remaining employees was constant. I remember that the manager would visit each store, persuading employees on why the sustainability of the business was necessary not to the managers but the welfare of the employees. Before the training program, the managers conducted surveys targeting employees from different stores of the same company. According to Palmer, Akin and Dunford (2009), such studies enables a company’s management to gauge the employees’ attitudes toward potential changes in the enterprise. During the implementation of the changes, the management had a person on the ground to ensure that the training programs did not inconvenience the employees and that it met their developmental needs. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

One of the key lessons learned during the change process was that change could only be successful if the employees are considered in the decision-making process. While some were reluctant to implement changes, persuasion by the management pushed them to accept the changes. By the time I left the company in 2010, the sales had soared, and the employees were enjoying better remuneration packages as result of the turnaround of the company. Today, the company operates more than 20 stores and is considered one of the most customer-friendly stores in our home area.

Blattberg, R. C., Kim, P., & Neslin, S. A. (2008). Database marketing: Analyzing and managing customers. New York, NY: Springer.

Palmer, I., Akin, G., & Dunford, R. (2009). Managing organizational change: A multiple perspectives approach. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Irwin.


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The relationship between man and God was that of respect since one was superior to the other. This is demonstrated by the requirement for man and woman to follow specific rules. The most important rule was that Adam and Eve were never to eat the forbidden fruit (Biblia, 2016). The only unfortunate thing is that people tend to show curiosity when they are forbidden from doing or using something. When the serpent convinces Eve to eat the fruit, it takes advantage of her curiosity. She later convinces Adam to eat the fruit, and that causes their expulsion from heaven.

This is a case of guilt as both Adam and Eve ate the forbidden fruit. They are guilty because they failed to follow the one rule that God stressed was most important while in the garden. One could note that there are two cases of guilt in Genesis 3. The first involves both Adam and Eve feeling guilty that they have disobeyed God and eaten the forbidden fruit. This case of guilt is collective as they are viewed as one and both expelled from heaven. On the other hand, Eve also feels guilty that she was the one who convinced Adam to eat the fruit. This makes it her fault that they had the idea to eat the fruit in the first place. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

In this story, the feeling of shame is only portrayed when they hide their nakedness from God after taking the forbidden fruit. This means that their guilt was the causative factor of the shame they later felt and chose to hide among the trees (Biblia, 2016). This means that both the cases of guilt and shame are seen in this chapter, but then one is greater than the other. The case of guilt haunts human beings to date. People see themselves as sinners in the eyes of God, and that demonstrates the admission of guilt. Therefore, guilt could be considered the main theme of this chapter with both Adam and Eve having their version of the experience.

Response 1
Even though guilt is the main theme in this objective in this chapter of Genesis, one should also consider the role played by shame. The fact that Adam admitted that the woman God gave him was responsible for making him eat the fruit shows shame. He is ashamed of the woman and even goes ahead to mention that God was responsible for her creation. Eve is also ashamed of herself for making Adam eat the fruit after knowing very well that it was forbidden. Therefore, both guilt and shame are evident in this chapter with Adam and Eve experiencing the same in different ways. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Response 2
I also think that God feels ashamed of the three characters in this chapter. He is disappointed in the serpent, and to demonstrate this he curses it to walk on its belly with the woman bruising its head. In addition, he places all animals above the serpent, and this is seen when it has to eat dust for its entire life. Secondly, God is disappointed in Adam and subjects him to acquire food only by toiling the ground. He curses the ground to ensure that Adam has to work hard to achieve anything. When it comes to Eve, God states that childbearing will be multiplied.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

When looking at the modern world, all these things are evident. People always kills snakes on sight while the cases of snake bites equally rampant. This means that people can easily overlook the aspect of shame from God’s perspective. He mainly feels ashamed of the three characters as He considers them guilty of eating the fruit. Therefore, Guilt and Shame are equally related in this chapter but then the actions are mainly associated with guilt. The guilty nature of their actions causes the different feelings of shame.

Biblia. (2016). The Fall.