Essay Sample:

The musical art form of hip hop is a useful tool in defining the practice of using an art form to explore the socio-economic conditions in the areas in which the art is being practiced. The public’s view of hip hip culture and its adherents are mixed in terms of the viewpoints that are often offered in response to the music. However, it is important to understand that there is an overall need for contextualizing when it comes to exploring the effects that this musical genre has had on the modern culture in various regions of Africa as a whole.
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Providing context for hip hop tends to be difficult because the tradition tends to vary from nation to nation. However, one aspect of hip hop that tends to be universal is its ability to be recognizable based upon the socio-economic statuses of the individuals who purvey and consume hip hop. Generally, there is a history of hip hop being used by the individuals who have the lowest socio-economic means as a way of speaking out against the inability to positively affect their situation or to call for justice while being impoverished. Through this lens, it is possible to explore hip hop in various areas of African.
One example of the way that hip hop tends to be viewed in Africa is that it is the cause of poverty and bad behavior rather than a result of living in such conditions. The article “Hooligans and Heroes” takes a look at this phenomenon in the nation of Tanzania. A useful statistic for examining the problems in the nation was revealed that one “city of 3.5 million people, unemployment figures among the general population are estimated to be from 13 to 40”[i]. These people are consistently faced with conditions that cause them to resort to crime and anger out of the utter despair that occurs in their everyday lives. However, when they attempt to listen to hip hop or engage in rapping with one another, they are grouped into the idea of the hooligan, a person that is going to cause trouble for the other people that accept the plight of their situation.
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This concept of hip hop being used as a cultural means of reaching out to talk about corrupt political systems and the poverty they cause can be seen in the music that is produced in Tanzania as well. It is not just the subscription to the hip hop culture or the appreciation of the music that colors the perspectives of the individuals, it is the way that they internalize and convey it as well. One artist whose music video has been circulated as an example of the youth feeling disenfranchised is X Plastaz. His song, “Nini dhambi kwa mwenye dhiki?”[ii], describes the systems that have kept the people in Tanzania from feeling empowered. It is important to note that this song was written about Tanzania, and mentions many issues such as poverty, corruption, and being unable to get a job- factors that have increased the distaste that people have towards their government. Lines from the song ask “What’s the offense of the poor?”, insisting that they are no different from the people that are in power and have a great deal of wealth, but are looked down upon and labeled unfairly. In other words, the singer is asking what the poor have done to deserve such unfair treatment; they are the most vulnerable individuals in society and are still treated as a threat.
The concepts that were outlined in both of these resources are crucial to grounding the view of hip hop as being a political act against socio-economic conditions that are invariably stacked against certain members of the community. While hip hop is a useful means of starting a conversation about the nature of power, who is able to direct it and who it is directed at, it is often used as a way of classifying people as potential troublemakers. The article “Heroes and Hooligans” shows that people in Africa are more than willing to accept the fact that people who are engaged in rapping have poor character qualities and do not deserve to be taken seriously. In their minds, it is merely the youth acting out and using hip hop as a means of displaying their anger towards other people. This view of hip hop is unfortunate, since it is one of the key ways of conveying the thoughts and frustrations of the poor in an approachable manner. Yet, the slang that is used in the songs, the perceived threats of violence, and impoverished conditions lead to these individuals being discounted as individuals that want to evoke change. Too often, they are seen as Hooligans, people looking to cause trouble rather than achieve effective discourse.
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Understanding the link between the socio-economic realities of people in impoverished regions and hip hop is crucial to garnering an effective view of the popular culture in Africa. The fact that so many people have their views dismissed because of the means that they use to convey this dissatisfaction with the system demonstrates why it is necessary to understand how this aspect of popular culture is grounded in a socio-economic system. By recognizing these attributes, a more effective and understanding view of African popular culture and its goals can be realized.
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Building off of the idea of African American recidivism in prison and the subsequent release of individuals into a world that is rather unfriendly, it is important to examine the lack of support that African Americans face following prison. The first area of support that fails African Americans when they are attempting to find gainful employment is that they are less likely to be called for an interview than people in the white demographic. A test that was conducted using names that sounded “Black” such as “Jamal” was completed against typically “White” names such as “Gregory”, and resumes with these names were sent to businesses (Cornell and Bernard, page 3). The results were that the names that were meant to mimic African American names tended to receive 50% fewer responses than names that were associated with sounding white. This is only one complication that comes with being an African American, but when compounded with the factor that the individual is a convicted criminal, the numbers appear even worse. Statistics indicate that African Americans who have a high school diploma only have an 8% change of a favorable interview process if it is known that they have a criminal record of any sort. This is less than half of the chance that African Americans have at being hired at a job with the same level of education but without having a prison sentence on their record (Decker and Spohn, page 49). This represents a lack of community and social support for individuals that are imprisoned, where their race and the fact that they were in a prison system is held against them so that they are unable to support themselves through legal means. As a result, many African Americans use the only other means that they have: the criminal skills that they learned while in the prison system.
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Many prison liaisons who oversee the transfer of individuals from prison to the world at a large note that the first few weeks after an individual is released are crucial. During this time, a former inmate has to find a place to live, meaningful employment, and friends or family that will be able to support them through such a transitory process. Unfortunately, many African American communities are ill-equipped to provide such support due to historical levels of poverty and the fact that many people in African American communities are incarcerated themselves. Also, the latest statistics revealed that “A third of prisoners lose their homes while they are in prison and half lose contact with their families, while a third also face mounting debts” (Decker and Spohn, page 33). With no family, homes, money, or jobs to go back to, the first few weeks following the release of an African American typically do not end well, with them being forced to scrounge for a living while simultaneously closing off their opportunities.
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Another aspect of the prison system that stacks the system of overall success against African Americans is that by denying them an education, they limit the future growth of them as a whole. If an individual comes out of prison and does not have the means to return to school to take a GED test or seek another form of higher education, then they are relegated to performing jobs that do not require specialization or education. Unfortunately, there are very few different jobs that do not require some form of an education. Even the United States military and union labor positions require that the individual has some form of high school equivalency in order to work within their ranks. This has a terrible impact on the overall income that individuals can obtain as African Americans. According to the National Bureau of Economic research, people that have no high school diploma only make half of the amount of money that people with a diploma make, and only a third of the money that is made by people who have a college degree (Jameson et al., page 775). These limitations are placed upon the prisoners by the prison system and reduce the amount of money that they can make throughout their entire life. Since African Americans represent the vast number of people that are incarcerated, they face the greatest amount of negative outcomes as a result.
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There is another unfortunate aspect to the act of recidivating that is directly influenced by the inability of these former prisoners to find work: supporting themselves through crime. As many as 18% of all prison inmates are members of gangs while they are in prison, seeking influence and street education that will serve them when they are released. Of the 169,000 African American prison gang members, the recidivism rate is over 85% (2011 National Gang Threat Assessment). By connecting these numbers with the other factors about jail, a clear fact emerges: African Americans function in a society that does not allow them to become successful after they are convicted and serve time in jail. Aside from not being able to actively seek participation in a degree program, African Americans do not have the ability to become involved in meaningful work programs, all but condemning them to a life of lower pay and conditions that will make it much more likely for them to recidivate. The fact that so many are only able to look to gang crime as a means of living shows just how desperate the circumstances have become in the eyes of many, and ultimately proves to be a self-fulfilling prophecy regarding crime and high rates of African American imprisonment.
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The incredibly high recidivism rate for African Americans comes as a result of several conditions such as the prison system, economic realities, and social constructs that ultimately penalize them beyond the sentence of their crime. There are ways to improve this situation, though, as it becomes more possible to put education programs in prison systems. Also, reducing sentences for non-violent offenders should be a primary consideration to reduce the overall prison population, thereby decreasing the amount of people subjected to these harsh laws and treatments. Overall, the most important step is that the idea of rehabilitation is one that is truly held and exhibited by the Department of Justice in outlining programs that pair offenders with jobs that are willing to accept them and pay a fair wage. Not only will this reduce crime, but it can stymie the amount of people that society is losing to the cyclical prison system through recidivism.
Works Cited
“2011 National Gang Threat Assessment – Emerging Trends.” FBI.gov. FBI, 25 June 2010. Web. 29 Apr. 2015.
Cornell, S., and A. Bernard. “Gender and Racial Bias in Hiring.” Illinois.edu. 21 Mar.     2006. Web. 29 Apr. 2015.             <http://diversity.illinois.edu/SupportingDocs/DRIVE/Gender and       Racial Bias      in Hiring-1.pdf>.
“Criminal Justice Fact Sheet.” NAACP.org. 2015. Web. 29 Apr. 2015.     <http://www.naacp.org/pages/criminal-justice-fact-sheet>.
Decker, S., and C. Spohn. “Criminal Stigma, Race, Gender and Employment: An           Expanded Assessment of the Consequences of Imprisonment for     Employment.” Ncjrs.gov. 2014.        Web. 29 Apr. 2015.
Jamison, Eliot A., Dean T. Jamison, and Eric A. Hanushek. “The Effects of Education    Quality on      Income Growth and Mortality Decline.” Economics of Education Review (2006): 771-88.            Print.
Ryan, Liz. “Key Facts: Children in Adult Jails & Prisons.” Campaign for Youth Justice. 2011.             Web. 29 Apr. 2015.


Individuals who are exposed to a prison environment  are subject to a lifestyle that fundamentally alters their ability to function as a human being, and affects the way that they react on the outside of the walls upon release. However, the conditions of prison do not account for the number of individuals, specifically African Americans, who return to prison following their release. According to statistics from the NAACP, there are currently 2.3 million people in the prison system, 1 million of them are African American (Criminal Justice). Moreover, the African Americans tend to commit crimes that necessitate their return to jail, known as recidivism, at a rate of 76%, a rate much higher than any other racial group (Criminal Justice). The only means to explain this is that the African American recidivism rate for prison is a result of a prison system, economic system, and social system designed to keep African American offenders from garnering a gainful lifestyle following prison.
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The first problem that faces African Americans in terms of recidivism is still inside of the prison walls. There are various elements that exist within the prison system that prevent individuals from becoming educated and rehabilitated members of society. The first one of these elements that must be explored is the lack of an education system within the prison system. The Campaign for Youth Justice notes that 40% of all prisons in the United States that are home to youthful offenders, individuals under the age of 21, do not have any educational facilities                (Ryan, 2013).
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As a result, these individuals will spend the duration of their jail sentence away from school and positive learning communities that will dictate their future. The fact that prisons do not actually provide education for individuals that are in jail makes it obvious that they are not the institutions of rehabilitation that so many of them claim to be. The sad fact of the matter is that this puts people in the prison population at risk for recidivating, and since the prison population is overwhelmingly African American, it puts this group at a higher rate than all others.  Unfortunately, for these uneducated people that are sent to jail, their future is much bleaker as a result. Out of these thousands of African American youth offenders that went to prison, only 61 percent of them will go on to complete a high school diploma (Ryan). There are many limitations that are imposed an individual when they do not have an education. This sets the stage for failure for individuals in detention centers and jail, who will have a much more difficult time finding jobs that will sustain them once they are released from prison.
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As a result of not being able to get a formal education on the inside of prison, many people in prison turn to learning how to work in a criminal enterprise so that they can survive on the outside. They will gain contacts from prisoners for people that they can work with on the outside to commit crimes, knowing that they have few other choices if they want to make a living. Unfortunately, the effect of this lack of education in prison and the subsequent replacement with a criminal education is that these prisoners return to the street with no education and have only their friends from the inside to turn to for help. This effectively sets up African Americans, the primary group within prisons, for returning to prison, as they turn towards a complete life of crime. This can, in the worst cases, turn a juvenile offender into a youth that views crime as a way of life, if not an inevitability.
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Essay Sample:

“The conflict is a human; the nature of conflict and the approaches towards solving conflicts are different from culture to culture” (Irani, 1999). A Jordanian’s likely point of view of accepting to have an issue mediated means he accepts the possibility that he can lose. However, in the U.S, mediation processes likely means that an economical solution to a conflict will be found.
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For example, as a business owner in Jordan, I had a business partner with whom I accepted to talk to mediators about a business dispute. He reported bought goods at a higher price than what he actually paid for them while we were organizing our new business. I immediately considered this to be an end to our partnership.

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When I accepted to talk to mediators about this matter, he believed that we would be partners again. Yet he and the mediators could not believe my determination to end this partnership, allowing him to take back his investment and go on his way.  The mediators, who were volunteers, tried to help us get back together and continue our venture. Yet, I told them that this was a mistake that is considered an unethical and immoral behavior that cannot be compromised by forgiving. As a final point, our partnership was dissolved and I gave him the money that he spent. During the facilitation process the mediator aids in negotiation, but does not make recommendations. On the other hand, in the evaluation process, he makes a recommendation as to the outcome of the dispute (Gould, King, & Britton, 2010).  Parties might flee arbitration because it requires identifying some change in circumstances, which might lead the parties to change the chosen method of dispute resolution (Drahozal & Wittrock, 2008).  The concepts of position and interest were clear for me: my position was that I would have no more business and my interest was to send a message to everyone that they will not be able to take advantage of me.  It is important to understand that the mediator’s task is not to choose who is right or wrong. With the assistance of the mediator, the parties endeavor to comprehend the positions and concerns of the other party through discussions between them. This is done to help the parties achieve a settlement that is fair and equitable to each, regardless of who is right or wrong (Tabbal, 2008).

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My experience in the U.S.A. was quite different. I had entered into a partnership of a mechanic shop with two Arab Muslims. They told me that they spent $30,000 on the business and that if I wanted to be their partner, I should pay $10,000. A few months into our partnership, I found out that they only paid $5000 for the business. A person who was going to buy that same business proved this to me. In addition, I found the original agreements between my two partners and the former owner of the shop. After collecting these pieces of evidence, I approached them and they were shocked. They wanted to pay me back my $10K and have me leave the partnership. I refused and demanded to go to Muslim community leaders to resolve it and mediate it. I suggested that they should leave the business and sign off on it to me. Moreover, I maintained that they pay me back the $5000 extra money that I paid to them. They called my brother to be the mediator, choosing him in order to save face in front of the Muslim community. My demand for calling Muslim Shaikh (Muslim religious leader) to be the mediator would have ruined their reputation within our community. At the end of mediation, they offered to pay back my $10K. I accepted this offer under the condition that I would get to keep one-fourth of the shop for my taxi business free of rent for one year as compensation for my profit in our partnership. They accepted the offer and we resolved the problem. We continued to work together, even though we had that dispute. Both of these disputes presented violations of ethical and moral behavior, yet I acted differently during each dispute.  The parties often prefer alternative dispute resolution to avoid ruining business relationships that are still beneficial to the parties involved (Chau, 2007).

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In Jordanian culture, when a person shows signs of weakness in protecting his assets or money, others believe that it is a signal of a weakness in personality and nature. Thus, I had to show no compromise in order not to encourage others to take advantage of me.  In this society, people will gossip about the event ceaselessly, adding to the public shame. However, in the U.S business, dealings are more private. Also, people are more concerned with their own lives in the U.S. than those of others.  They have less time than people in Jordan to gossip and usually will take such issues to court. Thus, the situation was different due to the cultural context, even though the person for each case was the same.


Essay Sample:

The research that was examined throughout this project brought many different aspects into a different light for me as a researcher. While I have been able to examine the different forms of information that have been used throughout the research, it is important to see the benefits and limitations that have emerged from this project. For this reason, this section of the paper is going to detail the different ways that the project benefitted from information as well as areas where there was not enough information to be used as a source. These deficits that emerge will ultimately serve as a means of furthering the research throughout this particular field of study.

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One of the areas that were examined throughout the literature study was the relationship between religion and the arbitration models that were examined in the study. I was able to examine the links between Islam and the system of arbitration that exists in Jordan. Specifically, many of the different roles and rules that have emerged through this system can be linked back to some form of basis within the religion of Islam. This is often seen as an incredible benefit for those who live in the area of Jordan in the sense that the citizens can count on justice that is personalized and made for the benefit of the community. The research that was completed was very clear that the Islamic forms of mediation and arbitration that take place in the society are often designed to keep the peace or to adhere to the greater good of the community. The research into the specific arbitration methods that are used in the area of the Middle East with which I am familiar produced a view that was unique in the sense that it has a basis in the religion. However, this is not always the case in other areas of the world, and as a researcher, it behooved me to attempt to find the basis of the arbitration methods that are used in this part of the world.

The research that was performed in the context of the effects that religion tends to have on the arbitration and mediation processes was bountiful as it applied to Islam and the applications in the Middle East. However, when it came to finding similar research for the western hemisphere, there was very little research that was able to provide the same links that were established for Islam. Therefore, one of the areas of research that is lacking in terms of the research project that I had proposed throughout this paper is the links between the most widespread religions in this area of the world and the western conceptualization of proper arbitration and outcomes. Exploring the history of the United States from a layman’s point of view establishes the fact that one of the most prominent religions in the United States and the Western Hemisphere as a whole is Christianity. In the United States, specifically, the Protestants were one of the chief groups that were in charge of the development of the nation. It would only make sense that there was a large influence of the religion in the works of the nation’s laws and ideas about mediation, arbitration, and even fairness. However, these aspects of the religious effects on the justice system throughout the United States were neither apparent, nor where they directly available through research.

This shows that the religious basis of Islam on the laws of arbitration is more outwardly significant than those of Christianity in the western world. It can also be implied that the research into these links is either not a topic that has been actively pursued, or it is one that has not been established in the conceptualization of negotiation and conflict resolution in this area of the country. I feel as though this aspect of the religious impacts on the everyday world of arbitration should be actively pursued in order to demonstrate a greater understanding of this topic and its relationship with other religions.

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Another aspect of research that was apparent throughout the study was that there are readings available about what happens when an eastern culture is examined within the context of a western culture. For example, I was able to show research and anecdotal evidence about the occurrences of arbitration and mediation in the United States using styles and systems that were developed under Islam in the Middle East, specifically in the nation of Jordan. However, there were no reciprocal studies that were performed about an individual from the west using their systems of mediation in a group in the Middle East. While this did not limit my research too severely, the fact of the matter was that it would have been useful to see how the different areas of the world allow or disallow the different aspects of the arbitration process to exist within the current laws. Yet, this was only one potential limitation that was exhibited throughout the study.

Another one of the areas of research that were approached throughout this research process was the sheer benefits of the interpersonal forms of arbitration versus those that are presented in the court systems that are active in the United States. While there is a great deal of information regarding the benefits of the impartiality of the United States court system in research, there is not wide-scale comparison that is available in research about the two systems. I believe that the comparison that I have made between the court systems of the United States and the religious-backed arbitration methods of religious leaders in the community in which I live might be one of the most recent comparisons. Since my data had no other to back it up as a beneficial or superior system, it would be beneficial to see an increase in research on the subject.

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One of the other areas of research that provided satisfactory insights and solutions in regards to the project that I have established was the cultural conflicts that emerge when attempting to provide a satisfactory outcomes for business medication. I was able to find a tremendous amount of information about how businesses and individuals can make adjustments to produce positive outcomes for their arbitration needs. The majority of the information that was produced in regards to arbitration in business was based on the western mindset, but it was able to be synthesized with my prior knowledge to garner positive outcomes.

Yet, there was another form of information that was not present during the research process that ultimately did not facilitate the information gathering that was required. In essence, there was a gap in information between the ethics that are in place in regards to negotiation, conflict resolution, and peace-making in the professional realm from a western standpoint and from the eastern standpoint. In terms of the information available for the ethics in the western world, I was able to find a vast amount of valuable information and even laws as they pertain to arbitration and mediation. There were plentiful case studies on the laws that surround various types and degrees of mediation and arbitration.

However, I was not as fortunate in the ability to find specific case studies and works as they pertained to the eastern philosophies of arbitration and mediation. Moreover, I was not able to locate the ethical dilemmas in the arbitration methods that
were present in the western philosophy within the context of the eastern philosophy. Had I been able to locate such ethical dilemmas, I believe that it would demonstrate that the ethical considerations which are present within the Islamic-driven forms of mediation and arbitration in communal and business circumstances are primarily fuelled by religion. The religious influence on business ethics would be far more palpable from this perspective than they would be in the perspective of the west. Any additional research in this area would have been beneficial to the determination of the development of western arbitration and how it could possibly change in the future.

One of the final areas of the research project that I found to be limited by the lack of information in regards to the project was about the ability to mediate peace without the influence of the law enforcement agencies throughout the United States and other western culture. I have found that in Jordan, it is not altogether uncommon to allow the individuals from a certain group to keep matters within their own community in terms of arbitration and mediation for wrong-doing. I was unable to find any reasons that the United States never adopted or has not approved of this form of arbitration solutions. Instead, I have only found that there is a reliance on local and federal government when it comes to outlining the different ways to solve a problem between two parties that are seeking arbitration.

These are just some of the areas that do not have satisfactory solutions in regards to the different research that was performed throughout this study. While it represents an information gap, it also provides vast opportunities for individuals to further the studies in these areas through contemporary or historical research on the matter. This would ultimately serve to foster a greater understanding of negotiation, conflict resolution, and peace-making as a whole.

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Roane, K. (2005, April 17). The CSI Effect. Retrieved June 3, 2015, from             http://www.law.yale.edu/documents/pdf/Alumni_Affairs/Stith_Roane_The_CSI_  Effect-_US_News_and_World_Report.pdf
This particular news story was one of the first on record that mentioned the “CSI Effect” over a decade ago. This is useful because it tells the reader about the public perception of the effect while it was still conjectured and not extensively written about like it has been in the present day. The story encapsulates a basic look at the CSI Effect and shows the earliest steps of the CSI Effect being witnessed in the public mindset. Another important aspect of this article is that it is often used as a baseline for prestigious law universities as a means of demonstrating the difficulties that have arisen as a direct result of having television shows pervade the public consciousness. Not only does the article show how difficult it may be to rid the jury of the notions that have been embedded by television, but correctly assumes that this was the “tip of the iceberg”.
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Shelton, D., Kim, Y., & Barak, G. (2006). The ‘CSI effect’: Does it really exist? Vanderbilt            Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law, 9, 330-330. Retrieved June 3, 2015, from http://ssrn.com/abstract=958224
This article poses the question about whether or not the CSI Effect has had any noticeable effect on criminal court cases or whether it was simply information that was taken out of context and largely assumed. This article holds that it is the first empirical study that was completed on the topic, making it a valuable resource to show the evolution of this phenomenon as it is continuously challenged in terms of its existence and threat that it poses. This was an important study because it had the goal of demonstrating whether adults were simply more aware of the need for science to be utilized, or whether they have been polluted as a result of too many crime programs. The overall result of this study had far-reaching implications about how television and education are affecting the need for more thorough investigations. Also, it lays the foundation for the fact that the courts may need to do a better job with telling jurors about what is required for a conviction.

Ley, B., Jankowski, N., & Brewer, P. (2012). Investigating CSI: Portrayals of DNA          testing on a forensic crime show and their potential effects. Public Understanding             of Science, 21(1), 51-67. Retrieved June 3, 2015, from          http://pus.sagepub.com/content/21/1/51.short
Another article that has been written on the topic of the CSI Effect discusses the various potential effects that could take place if an individual put too much faith in the abundance of evidence that is supposedly left at each crime scene. This article is important because it counteracts the first research article, plainly stating that the CSI Effect is real and can have potent effects within a courtroom. While the article outlines the benefits in that the jurors have a higher expectation for the law, the article expresses concern about the fact that DNA evidence is being regarded as the only thing that can convict or exonerate someone who is being tried in the court system. This work is useful because it builds on the knowledge that was gathered in the initial studies of the CSI Effect and looks at more confounding factors to see what the greatest benefits and detriments of such as system are.
Smith, L., & Bull, R. (2012). Identifying and measuring juror pre-trial bias for forensic                               evidence: Development and validation of the Forensic Evidence       Evaluation Bias Scale. Psychology, Crime & Law, 18(9), 797-815. Retrieved June 3, 2015, from             http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1068316X.2011.561800
One of the other most useful articles that can be examined in light of the CSI Effect is about how the court system has had to change as a result of the CSI Effect. Not only does this mean that the court system has acknowledged, to a degree, that such a problem exists, but that it is pervasive enough that an individual has to be asked certain questions about their bias for evidence. This article is also important because it examines the ways in which the court system has adjusted for the changes in the public perception of law. The article goes on to examine the question of whether the crime shows have been beneficial for raising awareness of legal issues, or ultimately harmful in that they have raised the expectations to an unfathomable height. The measures that are used attempt to ensure that there is fairness in the court system and a balance between what is obviously guilty and what is a stretch by prosecution or defense.


Essay Sample:

In the early part of the 20th century up to the 1950s, it was unconscionable to have children out of wedlock. In 1950 this number was first explored through the Census Bureau who found that only five percent of women had children outside of wedlock. As social conventions have evolved and women have become more involved in the job market, and more capable of financial independence, this number has changed dramatically. As of 2012, over 40 percent of all births are to women who are unmarried (Rosengrant,2014).  This can be reflected in the smaller household numbers that are shown through the census, and is perhaps one of the only trends in the changes in families in the United States that can be invariably identified as negative.
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Out of all of these changes that have occurred in the makeup of the families in the United States, there are some aspects that have emerged as being positive and others that have become viewed as negative. Not only are there deep social implications of these changes, but also psychological and economic issues that must be considered. As such, one of the first changes that were explored in this paper that could be reviewed as positive was the decrease in the overall size of the family unit. There are several reasons why this is important. For example, having fewer people living in a household allows the parents to pay more attention to their children. Also, they can use the lower number of people to live more comfortably and not have as many individuals that need to be supported by the incomes throughout the home. Susan Rosengrant applauds this dynamic change in the United States family, but also laments the loss of close familial bonds that existed as a result of having so many family members living in close proximity (2014). Still, the author of this paper believes that having fewer people that are reliant upon another’s income is a way to ensure that there are better outcomes for the family. Fewer people will be harmed if there is a sudden loss of a job, and there are more possibilities to save money.
Another one of the changes that has been positive in terms of the United States family unit has undoubtedly been the number of people that choose to cohabitate even if they are not married. This social constraint increased the number of people that were living under one roof with their parents until they were married. Now, more people are apt to live together and even start a family together without having to go through the legal process of being married. This is positive because it allowed people to exercise social freedoms and personal choice when it comes to living with others. Not only is it an economically friendly model, but it is also one that is socially sound. However, the reasons behind cohabitation can ultimately change whether the circumstances are better or worse for the individual that is living with others.
As previously mentioned, one of the invariably negative aspects of the changes to the United States family system that has emerged over the last century is when children are born into single-parent families. While being able to cohabitate is positive because it does not force marriage, the negative caveats in the situation that is presented by births that occur outside of marriage are that the children are typically only raised by a single parent (Grabmeier, 2012). While this phenomenon of out of wedlock births could once be chalked up to improper education or implementation of birth control or the young age of the parents, modern day couples are simply not staying together in marriage as long as those people in the past. Now, statistics say that over 40 percent of all people will become divorced, and that the same percentage of children born will have their family situation disrupted as a result (Rosengrant, 2014). This can lead to many different problems within a family system, such as children acting out and suffering from the overall familiar instability in their lives. In fact, studies have shown that children that live with step-siblings exhibit upwards of 30 percent more aggression than other children their age (Rosengrant, 2014).


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In this class, the professor introduced us to an APA book which introduces APA writing styles, theories, concepts,  methodological articulates and case studies.  Additionally, we were introduced to ethical legal standards in publishing, ethical reporting of research results, data retention, data sharing, duplicate publication of data, piecemeal publication of data, plagiarism, copy rights, conflict of interest in research, publication credit, editorial reviews and planning for ethical compliance. This experience was informative and challenging.  I learned that life has more than what home, community, TV, and friends have to offer.  People’s activities differ from one place to another. Interpretation of events by an outsider may not accurately describe an experience that another may have from his/her own social, economic and religious background.

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Among the theories introduced was critical theory, which seeks human emancipation, the liberation of human beings and provides descriptive and normative bases for social inquiry, the aims of which are decreasing domination and increasing freedom in all of their forms.

Also, empirical theory was another important concept introduced in the class.   Simply, one may seek change for a better world (empirical theory) and another may be forced to seek change (critical theory) as a reaction to injustice and to provide a better world through revolution.

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Peace-building and social theories, such as these, attempt to establish an educational, informative skill that helps students categorize events, actions, reactions and practices.  As a reference, these theories seek clarifications that enable association of activities or actions to a particular theoretical paradigm. This course is trying to establish research tools, critical thinking of summaries an interpretation, and to help students get a better understanding of an objective or an event.

Some of what I found to be interesting about this course is that humans of different religious, cultural, economic, social, educational and political backgrounds are all searching for answers to pervasive conflict.  I found the different ways in which people claim to seek what is better for mankind interesting.  Theoretical assumptions may be true for somebody or even a nation at one time or another, but do not constitute a comprehensive answer for all people or backgrounds. Thus, a single perspective should not be forced on a diverse group of people.

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In the Holy book, the Qur’an, it states: “O man-kind we have made you of a male and female.  Then we have made you into trips and nations.  So you can learn about one another.  Indeed, the most Honorable of you with Allah’s is one who is most sincere.”  I have learned from Islam, people, and what Allah has put in my heart is that if Allah chose to give us freedom to think, believe, live, move and more, who are we to choose for others what Allah did not chose for them?  Allah allows everyone to choose what path each person wants.  Do humans have any authority to say otherwise?

(Cheldelin, et al., 2003) indicates that mediation is well- practiced in civilizations with bases in  Islamic, European and Indian.  In addition, the article adds that the biggest boom to the practice of mediation became official in 1913, when the United States Department of Labor established a panel called the Commissioners of Conciliation, which opened doors to the practice of national-level mediation.

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Although one might assume personality is a fixed construct established in childhood, studies have demonstrated that the opposite is actually true by revealing that personality traits actually evolve as we grow older (Kersting 2003). There are five major traits by which every individual’s personality are defined and these are applicable no matter the race of gender of that individual, though there will be variations within these traits across a wide range of ages in addition to the other factors mentioned above. The five traits are labeled simply and each one serves a distinct purpose in creating the overall character makeup that defines us, together they form the building blocks of who each and every one of us is in this world. They are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. The recent studies that examined the consistency and development of these traits found that certain ones develop more readily and completely than others, and evolve at different periods in the lifespan of the individual (Kersting 2003).

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The first, but by no means more important than the others, is openness. This is defined by an individual’s willingness to try new things and remain open-minded about life experiences and the world that surrounds the individual (Atkinson et al. 2000). Those who score high in the openness category on personality tests are often interested in art and culture, possess strong imaginations, and generally curious about most things. The opposite holds true for those who don’t score well with openness, as they tend to be more closed off and hold conservative views on life, not so much politically but with experiences in general.

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The next one is conscientiousness and it characterizes the individual with respect to self-discipline, attentiveness to goals, and diligence towards organization and detail. This trait is linked to success in career and in relationships both personal and professional (Kersting 2003). Someone who has strong conscientiousness of their personality is always prompt, pays close attention to specifics, makes sure the job is done right and thinks and cares about making sure their responsibilities are met.

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Extraversion is the next major defining trait of personality and it is gauged by how comfortable an individual feels interacting with the world around them. Some people are more extroverted than others, we all know that one guy or gal who loves to be the center of attention or is always the life of the party. These folks would undoubtedly score higher in this category on a personality test. Extraversion is usually connected to high energy personalities who are always on the go, doing something instead of talking about it (though many will also love to talk out loud and express themselves), and are direct and assertive in just about every situation.

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Agreeableness is the trait through which our compassion and concern for our fellow man and woman is measured. People who score high with this trait have agreeable natures, genuinely care about the well-being of those around them, and often show tender, kind emotions and strong generosity in all things (Atkinson et al. 2000). People who are often empathetic and helpful are characterized by this trait, which can show signs of change in the individual as they get older, making them more agreeable than they were in the younger years. (Kersing 2003).

Finally, there’s neuroticism which is marked by feelings of anger, anxiety, disillusionment and a general sour disposition. Those who have a strong neuroticism trait tend to have mood swings, become depressed, and are prone to becoming irritable or stressed easily. Though you may have an image of Larry David in your head right now, neuroticism is similar but not the same as neurotic. (Atkinson et al 2000). Scoring high on the neuroticism part of the personality test indicates an emotional instability more than it does an overall cynical and bothersome view of the world.